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October 30, 1993
NEMWAN5.ASC
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This file shared with KeelyNet courtesy of Idan Mandelbaum.
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NEWMAN'S THEORY
By Roger Hastings PhD
Transcribed By George W. Dahlberg P.E.
I do not intend to recapitulate the theory presented in Newman's
book, but rather to briefly provide my interpretation of his
ideas. Newman began studying electricity and magnetism in the mid
1960's. He has a mechanical background, and was looking for a
mechanical description of electromagnetic fields. That is, he
assumed that there must be a mechanical interaction between, for
example, two magnets. He could not find such a description in any
book, and decided that he would have to provide his own
explanation. He came to the conclusion that if electromagnetic
fields consisted of tiny spinning particles moving at the speed
of light along the field lines, then he could explain all
standard electromagnetic phenomena through the interaction of
spinning particles. Since the spinning particles interact in the
same way as gyroscopes, he called the particles gyroscopic
particles. In my opinion, such spinning particles do provide a
qualitative description of electromagnetic phenomena, and his
model is useful in understanding complex electrical situations
(note that without a pictoral model one must rely solely upon
mathematical equations which can become extremely complex).
Given that electromagnetic fields consist of matter in motion, or
kenetic energy, Joe decided that it should be possible to tap
this kinetic energy. He likes to say "How long did man sit next
to a stream before he invented the paddle wheel?". Joe built a
variety of unusual devices to tap the kinetic energy in
electromagnetic fields before he arrived at his present motor
design. He likes to point out that both Maxwell and Faraday, the
pioneers of electromagnitism, believed that the fields consisted
of matter in motion. This is stated in no uncertain terms in
Maxwell's book "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field".
In fact, Maxwell used a dynamical model to derive his famous
equations. This fact has all but been lost in current books on
electromagnetic theory. The quantity which Maxwell called
"electromagnetic momentum" is now refered to as the "vector
potential".
Going further, Joe realized that when a magnetic field is
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created, its gyroscopic particles must come from the atoms of the
materials which created the field. Thus he decided that all
matter must consist of the same gyroscopic particles. For
example, when a voltage is applied to a wire, Newman pictures
gyroscopic particles (which I will call gyrotons for short)
moving down the wire at the speed of light. These gyrotons line
up the electrons in the wire. The electrons themselves consist of
a swirling mass of gyrotrons, and their matter fields combine
when lined up to form the magnetic lines of force circulating
around the wire. In this process, the wire has literally lost
some of its mass to the magnetic field, and this is accounted for
by Einstein's equation of energy equals mass times the square of
the speed of light. According to Einstein, every conversion of
energy involves a corresponding conversion of matter. According
to Newman, this may be interpreted as an exchange of gyrotrons.
For example, if two atoms combine to give off light, the atoms
would weight slightly less after the reaction than before.
According to Newman, the atoms have combined and given off some
of their gyrotrons in the form of light. Thus Einstein's equation
is interpreted as a matter of counting gyrotrons. These particles
cannot be created or destroyed in Newman's theory, and they
always move at the speed of light.
My interpretation of Newman's original idea for his motor is as
follows. As a thought experiment, suppose one made a coil
consisting of 186,000 miles of wire. An electrical field would
require one second to travel the length of the wire, or in
Newman's language, it would take one second for gyrotons inserted
at one end of the wire to reach the other end. Now suppose that
the polarity of the applied voltage was switched before the one
second has elapsed, and this polarity switching was repeated with
a period less than one second. Gyrotons would become trapped in
the wire, as their number increased, so would the alignment of
electrons and the number of gyrotons in the magnetic field
increase. The intensified magnetic field could be used to do work
on an external magnet, while the input current to the coil would
be small or non-existant. Newman's motors contain up to 55 miles
of wire, and the voltage is rapidly switched as the magnet
rotates. He elaborates upon his theory in his book, and uses it
to interpret a variety of physical phenomena.
RECENT DATA ON THE NEWMAN MOTOR
In May of 1985 Joe Newman demonstrated his most recent motor
prototype in Washington, D.C.. The motor consisted of a large
coil wound as a solenoid, with a large magnet rotating within the
bore of the solenoid. Power was supplied by a bank of six volt
lantern batteries. The battery voltage was switched to the coil
through a commutator mounted on the shaft of the rotating magnet.
The commutator switched the polarity of the voltage across the
coil each half cycle to keep a positive torque on the rotating
magnet. In addition, the commutator was designed to break and
remake the voltage contact about 30 times per cycle. Thus the
voltage to the coil was pulsed. The speed of the magnet rotation
was adjusted by covering up portions of the commutator so that
pulsed voltage was applied for a fraction of a cycle. Two speeds
were demonstrated: 12 R.P.M. for which 12 pulses occured each
revolution; and 120 rpm for which all commutator segments were
firing. The slower speed was used to provide clear oscilloscope
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pictures of currents and voltages. The fast speed was used to
demonstrate the potential power of the motor. Energy outputs
consisted of incandescent bulbs in series with the batteries,
flourescent tubes across the coil, and a fan powered by a belt
attached to the shaft of the rotor. Revelent ,otor parameters are
given below:
Coil weight : 9000 lbs.
Coil length : 55 miles of copper wire
Coil Inductance: 1,100 Henries measured by observing the current
rise time when a D.C. voltage was applied.
Coil resistance: 770 Ohms
Coil Height : about 4 ft.
Coil Diameter : slightly over 4 ft. I.D.
Magnet weight : 700 lbs.
Magnet Radius : 2 feet
Magnet geometry: cylinder rotating about its perpendicular axis
Magnet Moment of Inertia: 40 kg-sq.m. (M.K.S.) computed as one
third mass times radius squared
Battery Voltage: 590 volts under load
Battery Type : Six volt Ray-O-Vac lantern batteries connected
in series
A brief description of the measurements taken and distributed at
the press conference follows. When the motor was rotating at 12
rpm, the average D.C. input current from the batteries was about
2 milli-amps, and the average battery input was then 1.2 watts.
The back current (flowing against the direction of battery
current) was about -55 milli-amps, for an average charging power
of -32 watts. The forward and reverse current were clearly
observable on the oscilloscope. It was noted that when the
reverse current flowed, the battery voltage rose above its
ambient value, varifying that the batteries were charging. The
magnitude of the charging current was verified by heating water
with a resistor connected in series with the batteries. A net
charging power was the primary evidence used to show that the
motor was generating energy internally, however output power was
also observed. The 55 m-amp current flowing in the 770 ohm coil
generates 2.3 watts of heat, which is in excess of the input
power. In addition, the lights were blinking brightly as the coil
was switched.
The back current from the coil switched from zero to negative
several amps in about 1 milli-second, and then decayed to zero in
about 0.1 second. Given the coil inductance of 1100 henries, the
switching voltages were several million volts. Curiously, the
back current did not switch on smoothly, but increased in a
staircase. Each step in the staircase corresponded to an
extremely fast switching of current, with each increase in the
current larger than the previous increase. The width of the
stairs was about 100 micro-seconds, which for reference is about
one third of the travel time of light through the 55 mile coil.
Mechanical losses in the rotor were measured as follows: The
rotor was spun up by hand with the coil open circuited. An
inductive pick-up loop was attached to a chart recorder to
measure the rate of decay of the rotor. The energy stored in the
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rotor (one half the moment of inertia times the square of the
angular velocity) was plotted as a function of time. The slope of
this curve was measured at various times and gave the power loss
in the rotor as a function of rotor speed. The result of these
measurements is given in the following table:
Rotor Speed Power Dissipation Power/(Speed Squared)
radian/sec watts watts/(rad/sec)^2
4.0 6.3 0.39
3.7 5.8 0.42
3.3 5.0 0.46
3.0 3.5 0.39
2.1 2.0 0.45
1.7 1.2 0.42
1.2 0.7 0.47
The data is consistant with power loss proportional to the square
of the angular speed, as would be expected at low speeds. When
the rotor moves fast enough so that air resistance is important,
the losses would begin to increase as the cube of the angular
speed. Using power = 0.43 times the square of the angular speed
will give a lower bound on mechanical power dissipation at all
speeds. When the rotor is moving at 12 rpm, or 1.3 rad/sec, the
mechanical loss is 0.7 watts.
When the rotor was sped up to 120 rpm by allowing the commutator
to fire on all segments, the results were quite dramatic. The
lights were blinking rapidly and brightly, and the fan was
turning rapidly. The back current spikes were about ten amps, and
still increased in a staircase, with the width of the stairs
still about 100 micro-seconds. Accurate measurements of the input
current were not obtained at that time, however I will report
measurements communicated to me by Mr. Newman. At a rotation rate
of 200 rpm (corresponding to mechanical losses of at least 190
watts), the input power was about 6 watts. The back current in
this test was about 0.5 amps, corresponding to heating in the
coil of 190 watts. As a final point of interest, note that the Q
of his coil at 200 rpm is about 30. If his battery plus
commutator is considered as an A.C. power source, then the
impedance of the coil at 200 rpm is 23,000 henries, and the power
factor is 0.03. In this light, the predicted input power at 700
volts is less than one watt!
MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTION OF NEWMAN'S MOTOR
Since I am preparing this document on my home computer, it will
be convenient to use the Basic computer language to write down
formulas. The notation is * for multiply, / for divide, ^ for
raising to a power, and I will use -dot to represent a
derivative. Newton's second law of motion applied to Newman's
rotor yields the following equation:
MI*TH-dot-dot + G*TH-dot = K*I*SIN(TH) (1)
where MI = rotor moment of inertia
TH = rotor angular position (radians)
G = rotor decay constant
K = torque coupling constant
I = coil current
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In general the constant G may depend upon rotor speed, as when
air resistance becomes important. The term on the right hand side
of the equation represents the torque delivered to the rotor when
current flows through the coil. A constant friction term was
found through measurement to be small compared to the TH-dot term
at reasonable speeds, but can be included in the "constant" G.
The equation for the current in the coil is given by:
L*I-dot + R*I = V(TH) - K*(TH-dot)*SIN(TH) (2)
where L = coil inductance
I = coil current
R = coil resistance
V(TH) = voltage applied to coil by the
commutator which is a function
of the angle TH
K = rotor induction constant
In general, the resistance R is a function of voltage,
particularly during commutator switching when the air resistance
breaks down creating a spark. Note that the constant K is the
same in equations (1) and (2). This is required by energy
conservation as discussed below. To examine energy
considerations, multiply Equation (1) by TH-dot, and Equation (2)
by I. Note that the last term in each equation is then identical
if the K's are the same. Eliminating the last term between the
two equations yields the instantaneous conservation law:
I*V=R*I^2 + G*(TH-dot)^2 + .5*L*(I^2)-dot =.5*MI*((TH-dot)^2)-dot
If this equation is averaged over one cycle of the rotor, then
the last two terms vanish when steady state conditions are
reached (i.e. when the current and speed repeat their values at
angular positions which are separated by 360 degrees). Denoting
averages by < >, the above equation becomes:
= + (3)
This result is entirely general, independent of any dependences
of R and G on other quantities. The term on the left represents
the input power. The first term on the right is the power
dissipated in the coil, and the second term is the power
delivered to the rotor. The efficiency, defined as power
delivered to the rotor divided by input power is thus always less
than one by Equation (3). This result does require, however, that
the constants K in equation (1) and equation (2) are identical.
If the constant K in equation (2) is smaller than the constant K
appearing in equation (1), then it may be varified that the
efficiency can mathmatecally be larger than unity.
What do the constants, K, mean? In the first equation, we have
the torque delivered to the magnet, while in the second equation
we have the back inductance or reaction of the magnet upon the
coil. The equality of the constants is an expression of Newton's
third law. How could the constants be unequal? Consider the
sequence of events which occur during the firing of the
commutator. First the contact breaks, and the magnetic field in
the coil collapses, creating a huge forward spike of current
through the coil and battery. This current spike provides an
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impulsive torque to the rotor. The rotor accelerates, and the
acceleration produces a changing magnetic field which propagates
through the coil, creating the back emf. Suppose that the
commutator contacts have separated sufficiently when the last
event occurs to prevent the back current from flowing to the
battery. Then the back reaction is effectively smaller than the
forward impulsive torque on the rotor. This suggestion invokes
the finite propagation time of the electromagnetic fields, which
has not been included in Equations (1) and (2).
A continued mathmatical modeling of the Newman motor should
include the effects of finite propagation time, particularly in
his extraordinary long coil of wire. I have solved Equations (1)
and (2) numerically, and note that the solutions require finer
and finer step size as the inductance, moment of inertia, and
magnet strength are increased to large values. The solutions
break down such that the motor "takes off" in the computer, and
this may indicate instabilities, which could be mediated in
practise by external pertubations. I am confident that Maxwell's
equations , with the proper electro-mechanical coupling, can
provide an explanation to the phenomena observed in the Newman
device. The electro-mechanical coupling may be embedded in the
Maxwell equations if a unified picture (such as Newman's picture
of gyroscopic particles) is adopted.
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