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February 22, 1992
SWEET1.ASC

This file shared with KeelyNet courtesy of Guy Resh.

Hello,
I just received in ASCII form the two papers by Mr. Tom E. Bearden
which appeared in the Proceedings of the 26th Intersociety Energy
Conversion Engineering Conference, August 49, 1991, Boston,
Massachusetts. They can be found in volume 4 in the section
entitled 'Advanced Energy Concepts'. The titles are :
"Utilizing Scalar Electromagnetics to Tap Vacuum Energy"
by Floyd Sweet and Tom E. Bearden (pp. 370375)
(listed as SWEET1.ASC on KeelyNet)
and
"On a Testable Unification of Electromagnetics,
General Relativity, and Quantum Mechanics"
by Tom E. Bearden and Walter Rosenthal (pp. 487492)
(listed as SWEET2.ASC on KeelyNet)
Except for the unsupported conjectures dealing with mind, thought
and life, which bring his results almost into the metaphysical
realm, I find these papers to be very intriguing and compelling.
Thus, with the permission of Mr. Bearden, I am posting them to
sci.physics and alt.sci.physics.newtheories. (I'll start with the
paper "On a Testable Unification of Electromagnetics, General
Relativity, and Quantum Mechanics".)
As you can see in the "FollowupTo:" line, I would like to see
discussion appear in alt.sci.physics.newtheories, since that is the
most appropriate place for discussion. If your site does not
receive a.s.p.n., then let me know, and I can send you summaries of
whatever discussion follows (hopefully a lot). Of course, if your
site doesn't receive a.s.p.n, then ask your sysadmin if it would be
possible to receive it.
BTW, Mr. Bearden is not (yet) on the net, but he has agreed to let
me be a gobetween, and I'll try to post his comments on whatever
discussion ensues. I encourage everybody to find Whittaker's two
papers and Maxwell's original treatise on electromagnetic theory
(see the papers for the exact citations) and to read them carefully.
I hope you find these papers as intriguing as I have. If nothing
else, it will help you to firm up your foundation of physics.
Page 1
Please, let's keep an open, yet critical mind, and let's not allow
the discussion to develop into a flame war.
Jon Noring
(As soon as I have time, I'll post Mr. Bearden's other paper. They
came to me in Word 5.0 format, so I've had to do some editing).
====================================================================
 Jon Noring  noring@netcom.netcom.com "The dogs bark, but
 JKN International  IP : 192.100.81.100  the caravan moves 
 1312 Carlton Place Phone : (510) 2948153  caravan moves on."
 Livermore,CA 94550 VMail: (510) 8621101 "Pack your lunch, 
  sit in the bushes,
  and watch." 
====================================================================
"If you make $50,000 today, you have the same buying power as the
average coal miner did in 1949, adjusted for taxes and inflation,"
John Sestina, nationally recognized Certified Financial Planner;
quoted in 1987.

[This paper appeared in the 26th IECEC Conference, as past posts
have mentioned. Posted with the permission of T.E. Bearden. See
my prior post for more information. J.Noring]
ON A TESTABLE UNIFICATION OF ELECTROMAGNETICS,
GENERAL RELATIVITY, AND QUANTUM MECHANICS
T. E. Bearden
Association of Distinguished American Scientists
2311 Big Cove Road
Huntsville, Alabama 35801
Walter Rosenthal
4876 Bethany Lane
Santa Maria, California 93455
Abstract
Unrecognized for what it was, in 19031904 E.T. Whittaker (W)
published a fundamental, engineerable theory of electrogravitation
(EG) in two profound papers. The first (W1903) demonstrated a
hidden bidirectional EM wave structure in the scalar potential of
vacuum, and showed how to produce a standing scalar EM potential
wave  the same wave discovered experimentally four years earlier
by Nikola Tesla.
W1903 is a hidden variable theory that shows how to
deterministically curve the local and/or distant spacetime using
EM.
W1904 shows that all force field EM can be replaced by
interferometry of two scalar potentials, anticipating the Aharonov
Bohm effect by 55 years and extending it to the engineerable
macroscopic world.
W1903 shows how to turn EM into Gpotential, curve local and/or
distant spacetime, and directly engineer the virtual particle flux
of vacuum.
Page 2
W1904 shows how to turn Gpotential and curvature of spacetime
back into forcefield EM, even at a distance. The papers implement
Sakharov's 1968 statement that gravitation is not a fundamental
field of nature, but a conglomerate of other fields. Separately
applied to electromagnetics (EM), quantum mechanics (QM), and
general relativity (GR), an extended superset of each results.
The three supersets are Whittakerunified, so that a testable,
engineerable, unified field theory is generated. EM, QM, and GR
each contained a fundamental error that blocked unification, and
these three errors are explained. The Schroedinger potential can
also be structured and altered, indicating the direct engineering of
physical quantum change.
Recently Ignatovich has pointed out this hidden bidirectional EM
wave structure in the Schroedinger potential, without referencing
Whittaker's 1903 discovery of the basic effect. The potential for
applying the new approach to explain the nature of mind and thought,
and providing a laboratorytestable theory for them, is briefly
noted and indicative major references cited. Some of the possible
implications for physics and biology are pointed out.

Electromagnetics Has Foundations Difficulties
There exists today a small but growing number of scientists who have
become aware that the presently accepted electromagnetic theory is
seriously flawed. Shortcomings in the theory are readily cited.
(listed as THEORYBE.ASC on KeelyNet)
For example, in railgun experiments the Lorentz force law has been
falsified. It was always an approximation, and does not adequately
approximate at high energies. [ref. 1]
Also completely contrary to orthodox EM theory, the EM force fields
are not primary agents at all, but are effects produced in and on
the physical system by the potentials. As an example, we cite the
AharonovBohm (AB) effect, which proves that, even in the total
absence of the force fields, the potentials remain and can interfere
at a distance to produce real effects in charged particle systems.
[ref. 2] The AB effect has been proven to the satisfaction of all
but the most diehard skeptics. [ref. 3] However, its fundamental
impact on the basic notions underlying classical EM theory continues
to be ignored by all but a handful of scientists.
These EM shortcomings were not present in the original quaternion EM
theory by James Clerk Maxwell. [ref. 4] Indeed, the original
Maxwell theory contains many things that were mistakenly eliminated
from the abbreviated vector theory formulated primarily by Heaviside
and Gibbs, and to a lesser extent by Hertz. [ref. 5] Further, these
things that do not exist in conventional EM theory, but that exist
in Maxwell's actual quaternion theory, can be used in specially
designed equipment, and the operation of that equipment will be
inexplicable by presentday electromagnetic theory. ABeffect
laboratory apparatuses are in fact rigorous demonstrations of such
a statement.

Scalar Electromagnetics
This can be even further explained and developed experimentally
Page 3
according to Whittaker's fundamental approach. [ref. 6]
In a modern sense, in 1903/1904 Whittaker theoretically showed how
to engineer the scalar potential with a highly dynamic, hidden,
bidirectional EM wave structure, to build hidden EM vacuum engines
that are still unsuspected in modern physics today. Much of the
content of the fundamental 1959 Aharonov/Bohm paper was anticipated
in a different manner, and dramatically extended in an engineerable,
testable fashion, by Whittaker's two papers. At the time, however,
the vector
 phi(x)



 potential

 + +
 + + < Organized Local SpaceTime
 + + Curvature
 + EM +
 + Substructure +
 + +
 + +
+_______________________________+_______________________________+
+ +
X > + EM +
+ Substructure +
+ +
+ +
+ +
+ +
Figure 1. A Standing Scalar EM Potential Whittaker Wave.
interpretation of Maxwell's EM theory was just slowly beginning to
spread as the adopted model. Also, special and general relativity
and quantum mechanics had not yet been born. Accordingly,
considering the scientific understanding of the day, it was not
possible for any scientist, even Whittaker himself, to perceive the
potential future impact these fundamental papers could have on
sciences and technologies not yet even born. Unfortunately, in
later years Whittaker apparently never realized that his two earlier
papers had such application to the modern unification problem.
Indeed, up to the time of Whittaker's death, very few scientists
even concerned themselves with the notion of unified fields.

Turning EM Energy Into GPotential Energy
In his 1903 paper Whittaker showed that a standing scalar potential
wave can be decomposed into a special set of bidirectional EM waves
that convolute into a standing scalar potential wave, as shown in
Figure 1. As a corollary, a set of bidirectional EM waves, stress
waves, can be constructed to form a standing scalar potential wave
in space, as shown in Figure 2. Since all potentials represent
trapped energy density of vacuum, they are gravitational
[Note, Figure 2 is too complicated to reproduce here in ASCII]
Page 4
Figure 2. Whittaker's Bidirectional EM Plane Wave Structure.
in nature. [ref. 7] Because it represents a "standing wave" whose
magnitude represents the variation in the local energy density of
the vacuum, the Whittaker scalar potential wave represents a
standing wave of variation in the local curvature of vacuum, sharply
in contradiction to the assumptions of present electromagnetics and
general relativity. [ref. 8] It also represents a standing wave of
the variation of the local gauge.

Turning GPotential Back to EM
The very next year, Whittaker's second paper (cited above) showed
how to turn such Gpotential wave energy back into EM energy, even
at a distance, by scalar potential interferometry, anticipating and
greatly expanding the AharonovBohm effect.
Indeed, Whittaker's second paper shows that the entire present
forcefield electromagnetics can be directly replaced with scalar
potential interferometry. In other words, scalar EM includes and
extends the present restricted vector subset of Maxwell's original
theory.

Engineering the Nucleus Directly
Whittaker's work is even more striking when one realizes that
potentials are actually part of the vacuum itself. They pervade
through the electron shells of an atom, directly reaching the
nucleus and centering on it.
Gross external changes (gradients; force fields) of the potentials
interact primarily with the electron shells of the atom. The
stabilized (persistent, gradientfree) potential's primary
interaction is with the atomic nucleus.
Specifically, the primary interaction between the infolded,
internalized EM bidirectional wave structure of a Whittaker
potential is with the atomic nuclei, rather than with the atom's
electron shells, because in the standing Whittaker potential wave
the local magnitude of the external potential is not changing.
Whittaker has in fact shown that there exists an unsuspected,
hidden, internal EM energy exchange channel between nuclei, a
channel where EM energy flows bidirectionally, undetected by most
modern detectors.
Unlimited types of Whittakerstructures can be produced in the
laboratory in the form of deterministically structured potentials;
for the first time, the direct engineering, structuring, and
manipulation of the nuclear potentials themselves, even with
miniscule EM power, is possible. This is a new capability of
exceptional importance and application.
The Whittaker structuring in effect allows one to produce a "virtual
grid" to place in the violent virtual particle flux (VPF) exchange
of the local vacuum with the nucleus. By simply holding the grid
signal constant, gradually the nuclear potential itself will
substructure (activate) with the same structure.
Page 5
When the activating ("charging") potential is removed, the
activation of the nucleus will gradually "decay" back to the normal
structure. Just as one example, the binding energy of an atomic
nucleus is accessible and, theoretically, engineerable.

Whittaker Structuring Confirmed
Recently Ignatovich has pointed out the hidden bidirectional EM wave
structure in the Schroedinger potential, without referencing
Whittaker's 1903 discovery of the basic effect. [ref. 9]
Also, recently modern researchers, working on acoustic missiles and
with the scalar acoustic wave equation, have "rediscovered"
Whittaker's 1903 infolded bidirectional planar waves inside the
scalar wave. [ref. 10] They do not appear to have yet recognized
its relevance to their work in electromagnetic missiles. [ref. 11]

STOCHASTIC ELECTRODYNAMICS
Whittaker's paper takes on a significant new meaning, however, in
light of Sakharov's 1968 hypothesis that gravitation is not a
primary field, but is produced as a result of interactions of other
fields. Together with Whittaker's structured potential, this
implies that the gravitational aspects of the nucleus can also be
electromagnetically engineered.
As a result of Sakharov's hypothesis, explosive activity in
stochastic electrodynamics (SED) has shown that many fundamental
parts of physics are "already unified" in terms of electromagnetics
and gravitation. Evidence continues to accumulate that the
gravitational field may not be a primary field of nature, but a
secondary or residual effect associated with other nongravitational
fields.
[ref. 12] Actually, general relativity has always focused on
energy as the thing which really has gravitation. Trapped energy,
such as mass, is particularly important. But since mass is
essentially trapped EM energy, relativity has essentially assumed
Sakharov's hypothesis anyway, without stating it so explicitly.
Further, GR considers "the" Gpotential as a conglomerate of other
things. [ref. 13] It follows that the gradient of that conglomerate
yields a force field which is also a conglomerate.

GPotential is Electromagnetic
Starting from Sakharov's postulate, to the first order gravitation
should be due to some aspect of the EM field, since EM is the
strongest and most universal force normally encountered in the
macroscopic world experimentally, and since mass is already "trapped
EM energy." Thus Sakharov focused attention upon the zeropoint EM
energy fluctuations (ZPF) of vacuum.
Sakharov conjectured that the Lagrange function of the Gfield is
generated by vacuum polarization, due to fermions. [ref. 14] Akama
et al examined the potential generation of gravity as a collective
excitation of fermionantifermion pairs. [ref. 15]
Haxlacher and Mottolo proved that spacetime (ST) curvature can
Page 6
arise from the quantum fluctuations of pure gauge fields. [ref. 16]
Zee showed that gravity is generated as a symmetrybreaking effect
in quantum field theory in which a dynamical scaleinvariance
breaking is postulated to take place at energies near the Planck
mass. [ref. 17]
Amati, Veneziano and Yoshimoto showed that in pregeometric models
the Einstein action and metric may be generated from quantum
fluctuations of matter fields. [ref. 18]
A review of the exploding field was given by Adler, with particular
emphasis on the case of renormalizable field theories with dynamical
scaleinvariance breaking, in which the induced gravitational
effective action is finite and calculable. [ref. 19]

Puthoff's Important Contribution
Recently Puthoff has applied the Sakharov viewpoint to significantly
advance the stochastic electrodynamics field. He has successfully
explained why the atom's orbital electrons do not decay into the
nucleus, even though by conventional EM theory each electron must
constantly radiate EM energy, since it is constantly accelerated.
[ref. 20]
He has also shown that gravitation can indeed be regarded as an
induced effect associated with zeropoint EM fluctuations of the
vacuum. [ref. 21] He has also shown a feedbackderivation of the
source of the vacuum EM zeropoint energy fluctuations from quantum
fluctuation motion of particles driven by the ZPE. [ref. 22]
Quantum fluctuation motion of particles and vacuum ZPE fluctuations
are connected by a causal, selfregenerating cosmological feedback
cycle.

Some Conclusions
In light of Whittaker's EM structuring of the potential, there are
several important conclusions to be taken from the important SED
work since Sakharov's seminal suggestion, as follows:
(1) In stochastic electrodynamics, very solid theoretical
foundation exists for electrogravitation.
(2) The vacuum EM ZPF may be regarded as causally connected to
quantum mechanical particle jitter (Zitterbewegung motion)
and vice versa, though the feedback mechanism into the
virtual particle flux of vacuum is normally hidden by the
largescale integration represented by any macroscopic
object or process.
(3) The SED theoretical demonstration of this hidden mechanism
adds new emphasis on the rather neglected hidden variable
theories.
(4) In some fashion, statistical quantum change is chaotic
rather than random, for it has already been shown by
Puthoff that the vacuum ZPF fluctuations driving everything
are totally deterministic. It follows that, theoretically,
hidden Whittaker order already exists in quantum change,
and quantum change must be already chaotic and at least
partially deterministic.
(5) It follows that there may well exist engineerable
mechanisms that can affect or manipulate quantum change.
Page 7

Whittaker Potentials Are Engineerable
What Whittaker has described in his 1903 paper is a standing
electrogravitational wave, a standing wave in the local curvature of
spacetime itself, that can readily be constructed experimentally.
This Whittaker standing potential wave is precisely the new form of
standing EM wave that Nikola Tesla had experimentally discovered
being radiated from a thunderstorm four years earlier, on the night
of July 34, 1899, and which he recorded in his Colorado Springs
Notebook on the morning of July 4, 1899. [ref. 23]
Further, Whittaker's paper directly implies that the hidden variable
determinism shown by Puthoff to be driving the zeropoint EM
fluctuations can also be engineered, both locally and at a distance.
In short, Whittaker's 1903 paper shows how to turn electromagnetics
into gravitational potential. Unknowingly, Whittaker had already
shown the correct engineering way to unify EM and G fields, and
already falsified one of Einstein's later primary GR assumptions,
that the local spacetime is never curved, in a testable manner, a
decade before Einstein published his theory of general relativity.
In the very next year, 1904, Whittaker's second paper (orally
presented in 1903) was published. [ref. 24] In this littlenoticed
paper Whittaker shows that all classical force field
electromagnetics can be replaced by scalar EM potentials and their
interferometry.
Specifically, any EM force field can be replaced by two scalar
potential fields and scalar interferometry. The combination of this
paper and the 1903 Mathematische Annalen paper not only includes the
AharonovBohm effect, but specifies a testable method for producing
a macroscopic and controlled AharanovBohm effect, even at large
distances. [ref. 25]

PRESENT ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY IS INCOMPLETE
As stated above, Maxwell's original EM theory was written in
quaternions, which are an extension to the complex number theory and
an independent system of mathematics. In short, since the
quaternion is a hypernumber, Maxwell's theory was a hyperspatial
theory, not just the limited threedimensional subset that was
extracted and expressed by Heaviside and Gibbs in terms of an
abbreviated, incomplete vector mathematics. [ref. 26]

Heaviside and Gibbs Curtailed Maxwell's Theory
Oliver Heaviside was a brilliant, selftaught genius who never
formally attained a university degree, and whose papers were printed
in technical magazines rather than scientific journals. When
Maxwell published his Treatise in 1873, Heaviside was just teaching
himself differential equations.
Heaviside's imagination was completely seized by Maxwell's book, and
Maxwell forever became his hero. However, he had great difficulty
with quaternions and could not completely tolerate them.

Page 8
Electrogravitation Was Discarded
A puzzled Heaviside abhorred the quaternion, since it linked
together a scalar component and a vector component, or "apples and
oranges," in his view. He excised the scalar component of the
quaternion and excluded the hyperspatial characteristics of its
directional components, producing his much more limited vectors.
To unite magnetics and electromagnetics, the simplest complex aspect
of the quaternion had to be restored by resorting to ordinary
imaginary numbers. These machinations to the quaternion theory,
however, discarded its unified field theory aspects.
In short, Heaviside produced a very practical, highly restricted
subset that was far easier to engineer, but he threw out
electrogravitation in the process.

Hatred of the Potential
Heaviside hated the potential because he did not truly understand
it. He stated that it was "...mystical and should be murdered from
the theory." He conditioned generations of physicists and engineers
to erroneously believe that the potential was just a mathematical
convenience, and had no actual physical realization.
Indeed, most electrical physicists and electrical engineers are
still of that erroneous persuasion today, even though the Aharonov
Bohm work has longsince falsified such a position, both
theoretically and experimentally.

The Quaternion Theory Was Already a Unified EM/G Theory
The present author has previously pointed out that Maxwell's
quaternion theory was in fact a unified theory of electromagnetics
and gravitation, and that the scalar component of the quaternion was
the electrogravitational part. [ref. 27]
That part was discarded by Heaviside and Gibbs, and so
electrogravitation no longer appears in the electromagnetics that
resulted from Heaviside's and Gibbs' surgery on Maxwell's quaternion
theory. Strong experimental evidence for the EG nature of
Whittaker's scalar EM theory is planned for presentation at this
conference. [ref. 28]

ELECTROGRAVITATION ALSO EXCLUDED FROM GENERAL RELATIVITY
The electrogravitational effect was also erroneously excluded from
Einsteinian general relativity (GR). Einstein unwittingly narrowed
his general relativity to only a subset of an unrestricted general
relativity of curved spacetime, by excluding local curvature. This
GR error was an indirect result of the fundamental Heaviside/Gibbs
omission error in classical electromagnetics.

Einstein's Gedankenexperiment
Unfortunately, Einstein's view of electromagnetics approximated the
classical Heaviside/Gibbs view. In classical EM theory, the
electrical potentials, which actually were electrogravitational
potentials, were already ignored as having no physical significance,
Page 9
and EM was considered mutually exclusive to G. Therefore, Einstein
only considered the weak gravitational force due to the attraction
of mass, in developing his general relativity theory of curved
spacetime.
The Gforce is far weaker than the Eforce; for two electrons, for
example, the attractive Gforce between them is on the order of only
10^42 times as strong as their electrical Eforce repulsion. Thus
the Gforce is incredibly smaller than the EM force.
If only the weak Gforce is considered for curving spacetime, then
there will never be an observable curvature except in the immediate
vicinity of a very large mass, such as on the surface of the sun or
near a star.
Considering the weak Gforce as the agent for curvature, Einstein
reasoned that the laboratory and the observer/scientist/instrument
would never be on the surface of the sun or near a star. Therefore,
the local spacetime, where the lab and the scientist/observer and
his instruments are, would never be observably curved. The local
spacetime of the observer would always be flat.
Unfortunately Einstein then overgeneralized his thought examination,
and he stated one of his fundamental postulates of general
relativity as "The local spacetime is always flat." This is an
erroneous overstatement.
The postulate should be more correctly stated as follows: "The local
spacetime is always flat, whenever only the weak gravitational
force is used for the agent of curvature, and the observer is not
near a large collection of mass, such as a star."

Corollary to the Corrected Postulate
The two statements of the postulate differ fundamentally.
Einstein's overstatement of the postulate does not allow the far
stronger EM force to be used as an agent for local curvature. In
effect, his own postulate excluded electromagnetics from curvature
unity with gravitation, in his general relativity theory. [ref. 29]
On the other hand, the corrected statement of the postulate admits
the following corollary:
"When a very strong force such as the electromagnetic force is
used for the agent of curvature, the local spacetime may be
curved, even though the observer is not near a large
collection of mass, such as a star." [ref. 30]
Regrettably, many of Einstein's modern followers have raised
Einstein's theory to a dogma, and have vigorously enforced his
overstatement of the locally flat spacetime. [ref. 31]
In so doing, general relativity has been erroneously reduced to a
theory that is basically not experimental:
A priori, if the local spacetime is flat, then there is no
local experiment or local apparatus that involves or yields a
curved spacetime where the laboratory, the instruments, and
the observer are located.
Page 10
In this fashion the universities have continued to perpetuate the
exclusion of electrogravitation and its direct spacetime curvature
engineering implications.

THE CURTAILMENT OF QUANTUM MECHANICS
Today, quantum mechanics is our most successful physics theory. Its
predictions, even the eery prediction of action at a distance, have
been proven time and time again. However, quantum mechanics theory
is known to have a formidable foundations difficulty: Try as they
will, quantum physicists cannot find chaos in the theory. The
theory is known to be wrong unless it possesses chaos (hidden order
inside its statistics), yet the best efforts of quantum physicists
have failed to find it. [ref. 32]

Chaos Excluded By Inherent Assumption
Any wellfounded mathematical discipline is totally implied by its
foundations postulates, and that is true of quantum mechanics. If
the best efforts of the ablest physicists of the day cannot find
chaos in the present QM, then one may suspect that the present QM
does not contain chaos (hidden order), but already excludes it in
some fashion. If that is true, then some present QM postulate,
either explicit or implicit, of QM must be the culprit.
If so, the "real" QM needed is a superset that has at least two
subsets: one (the missing) subset includes chaos, while the present
subset excludes chaos.
So we may suspect that one or more of the postulates of the present
QM theory is in error or overly restrictive, and must be changed to
allow the missing chaotic subset.

Gibbs Statistics Excludes Hidden Order
Indeed, we may resolve this formidable QM problem quite simply by
examining the statistics utilized by quantum mechanics. When QM was
being formulated, scientists simply appropriated and included the
thermodynamic statistics of Willard Gibbs (the same Gibbs who,
together with Heaviside, was responsible for the highly restricted
vector subset of Maxwell's theory of electromagnetics.).
Gibbs' thermodynamics statistics was totally based on the notion of
the random variable. That is, the change (value assumed by the
variable in a specific instance) is not only totally statistical, it
is also totally random.
Quantum physicists assumed a postulate of QM as follows: "Quantum
change is totally statistical." However, because of the Gibbs
statistics, in application they interpreted that postulate in a much
stronger fashion, as if it had been stated thusly: "Quantum change
is totally statistical and random."
The actual postulate and the presently applied interpretation of it
are in fact two quite different statements, and the interpretation
is far more restrictive than actually implied by the postulate
itself.

Page 11
The Random Interpretation Is False
Further, the strong interpretation can readily be falsified. As an
example, the macroscopic universe is simply a large integration
(collection) of quantum changes. If these component quanta occur
totally randomly, then no integration of them would yield the
ordered, macroscopic world we all live in, because integrated
randomness is still random. Therefore, since the ordered macroworld
exists, the present QM strong interpretation of its own statistical
quantum change postulate is invalid.
In addition, if quantum change were totally random, then there would
never be any possibility, a priori, of engineering it
deterministically. Presently, almost all quantum physicists believe
that quantum change cannot be engineered, on first principles.
On the other hand, if hidden order is admitted, there is at least
the possibility of directly engineering physical quantum change
itself.

Hidden Variables
Interestingly, the renowned physicist David Bohm has shown that a
hidden variable theory of quantum mechanics can actually be
constructed, whereby one could potentially engineer physical change.
[ref. 33]
It is wellknown that experimental physics does not in any manner
refute hidden variable theories. Because of the historical
attachment of physics to the theory of the random variable, such
contrary notions as chaos (hidden order) and hidden variables have
simply been greeted with suspicion and shuffled aside. The usual
objection is Occam's razor; a theory must predict something
different, or it is said to be unwarranted. [ref. 34]
But based on this same form of Occam's overworked razor, the
Whittaker hidden variable approach certainly predicts many
profoundly different engineerable effects and capabilities that
mandate its full examination.

Correction of the Statistical Postulate
A much better, valid interpretation of the quantum change postulate
is as follows: "Quantum change is statistical, and may contain
hidden order."
The two interpretations differ sharply. In the new and less
restrictive reinterpretation, one has three cases or subsets of QM
as follows:
(1) the subset where quantum change contains partial order,
hence is already chaotic,
(2) the subset where the internal order has vanished, leaving
the statistics as Gibbs' random variable statistics, and
exhibiting the present quantum mechanics without chaos, and
(3) the subset where the statistics is totally deterministic,
but information on the variables is lost.
Page 12

Remarks On the New Interpretation
The new interpretation is consistent with Bohm's hidden variable
theory, and it is also consistent with the Schroedinger equation,
which in the QM model already propagates the QM states forward in
time with absolute determinism.
It is even possible, for example, to deterministically produce a
Bohm/de Broglie quantum potential, according to a selftargeting
repetitive phase conjugation mechanism advanced by this author.
[ref. 35]
The new interpretation is not consistent with the Copenhagen
interpretation, which only applies to the present QM subset. This
can be seen as follows: If quantum change is engineerable by
Whittaker hidden variables, then the inner contents of the
engineered quantum change are known.
This knowledge applies to the subset where QM change is engineered
(the new subset), but not to the subset where all variables are
random variables and hence not subject to engineering. Therefore
the Copenhagen interpretation applies to the random quantum change
subset, but not to chaotic (partially ordered) quantum change
subset.

The New Interpretation Is Testable
Happily, the reinterpretation of the postulate now allows a
sufficient collection of alreadychaotic quantum changes to produce
the wellordered, macroscopic universe we all live in. Also, the
new interpretation is testable, and it can be falsified or verified
in the laboratory.

THE END RESULT OF ABBREVIATING MAXWELL'S THEORY
Effect On EM
In discarding the scalar component of the quaternion, Heaviside and
Gibbs unwittingly discarded the unified EM/G portion of Maxwell's
theory that arises when the translational/directional components of
two interacting quaternions reduce to zero, but the scalar resultant
remains and infolds a deterministic, dynamic structure that is a
function of oppositive directional/translational components.
In the infolding of EM energy inside a scalar potential, a
structured scalar potential results, almost precisely as later shown
by Whittaker but unnoticed by the scientific community. The simple
vector equations produced by Heaviside and Gibbs captured only that
subset of Maxwell's theory where EM and gravitation are mutually
exclusive.
In that subset, electromagnetic circuits and equipment will not
ever, and cannot ever, produce gravitational or inertial effects in
materials and equipments. Not a single one of those Heaviside/Gibbs
equations ever appeared in a paper or book by James Clerk Maxwell,
even though the severely restricted Heaviside/Gibbs interpretation
is universally and erroneously taught in all Western universities as
Maxwell's theory.
Page 13
Effect On GR
As a result of this artificial restriction of Maxwell's theory,
Einstein also inadvertently restricted his theory of general
relativity, forever preventing the unification of electromagnetics
and relativity. He also essentially prevented the present
restricted general relativity from ever becoming an experimental,
engineerable science on the laboratory bench, since a hidden
internalized electromagnetics causing a deterministically structured
local spacetime curvature was excluded.

Effect On QM
Quantum mechanics used only the Heaviside/Gibbs externalized
electromagnetics and completely missed Maxwell's internalized and
ordered electromagnetics enfolded inside a structured scalar
potential. Accordingly, QM maintained its Gibbs statistics of
quantum change, which is nonchaotic a priori.
Quantum physicists by and largely excluded Bohm's hidden variable
theory, which conceivably could have offered the potential of
engineering quantum change, engineering physical reality itself.

In Summary
Each of the three major scientific disciplines missed and excluded a
subset of its disciplinary area, because it did not have the scalar
component of the quaternion to incorporate. Further, all of them
completely missed the significance of the Whittaker approach, which
already shows how to apply and engineer the very subsets they had
excluded.
What now exist in these areas are three inconsistent disciplines.
Each of them unwittingly excluded a vital part of its discipline,
which was the unified field part. Ironically, then, present
physicists continue to exert great effort to find the missing key to
unification of the three disciplines, but find it hopeless, because
these special subsets are already contradictory to one another, as
is quite wellknown to foundations physicists.

CONCLUSIONS
Obviously, if one wishes to unify physics, one must add back the
unintentionally excluded, unifying subsets to each discipline.
Interestingly, all three needed subsets turn out to be one and the
same, as shown in Figure 3. So application of Whittaker's work to
each one of the three disciplines produces the necessary superset of
each, and these three supersets are unified in and on the common
added Whittaker subset.
Page 14
_______________________
 
 GENERAL 
 RELATIVITY (GR) 
_______________________________________________________________
   
 QM  APPLY  CLASSICAL 
 (MISSING  WHITTAKER  EM 
 CHAOS)  THEORY  THEORY 
_____________________________________________________________
 
 MIND AND SUBTLE 
 ENERGY 
_____________________
Figure 3. Whittaker Unification of EM, GR, and QM.
Also, as shown in the figure, one gets an added and unexpected bonus
of great value: Mind, thought, and life occupy time, and if time is
treated as a real dimension, then these are real also. Since
fundamental units in which physics is modeled are arbitrary, one can
even model physics in terms of one unit, time.
In that case, everything is a time structure. Since even physical
reality can be viewed in this fashion, it is not unreasonable to
view mind, thought, and life as real; they do after all occupy time.
However, since they do not emerge in the normal external
electromagnetics, they must lie within the hidden, internal
electromagnetics (since the photon carries both time and energy,
being a piece of action).
Without further development, we state that the Whittaker hidden
variable EM approach, in allowing the complete engineering of the
internal electromagnetics, allows the complete engineering of mind,
thought, and life. Living systems have utilized the internal EM
Whittaker channel (in and through atomic nuclear potentials and area
quantum potentials) since the beginning. [ref. 36]
Finally, the Whittaker unification linkage of the three disciplines
is testable. It is engineerable. It works.

NOTES AND REFERENCES
[1] P. Graneau, AmpereNeumann Electrodynamics of Metals,
Nonantum, Massachusetts, Hadronic Press, 1985. See also P.
Graneau and P.N. Graneau, "Electrodynamic Explosions in
Liquids," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 46, 1985, p. 468; R.
Azevedo, P. Graneau, P.N. Graneau, and C. Millet, "Powerful
Water Plasma Explosions," Phys. Lett. Vol. 117, 1986, p.
101.
[2] See Y. Aharonov and D. Bohm, "Significance of
Electromagnetic Potentials in the Quantum Theory," Phys.
Rev. Second Series, 115(3), Aug. 1, 1959, p. 458491. This
paper pointed out the primacy of the potentials. Instead
of being causative agents, the force fields are actually
effects generated in and of charged particle systems from
the potentials. This is in complete violation of both
classical electromagnetics and classical dynamics, but it
Page 15
is absolutely required by quantum mechanics. For an
extensive discussion of the AharonovBohm effect and an
extensive list of references, see S. Olariu and I. Iovitzu
Popescu, "The Quantum Effects of Electromagnetic Fluxes,"
Rev. Mod. Phys. 57(2), Apr. 1985.
[3] See Bertram Schwarzschild, "Currents in normalmetal rings
exhibit AharonovBohm Effect," Physics Today, 39(1), Jan.
1986, p. 1720 for confirmation.
[4] James Clerk Maxwell, A Treatise on Electricity and
Magnetism, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1873. The
third edition is published by Dover, 1954.
[5] Maxwell's true theory of electromagnetics is contained in
some 200odd quaternion equations, and is far more complex
than the gross vector simplification developed by Heaviside
and Gibbs after Maxwell's death. For a cogent argument
about what might have been discovered much earlier in
physics if quaternions had not been cast aside, see James
D. Edmonds, Jr., "Quaternion Quantum Theory: New Physics or
Number Mysticism?", Am. J. Phys., 42(3), Mar. 1974, p. 220
223. Just how much more powerful was Maxwell's
quaternionic expression of EM theory than was Heaviside's
(i.e., the modern) vector interpretation, was succinctly
expressed by Josephs as follows: "Hamilton's algebra of
quaternions, unlike Heaviside's algebra of vectors, is not
a mere abbreviated mode of expressing Cartesian analysis,
but is an independent branch of mathematics with its own
rules of operation and its own special theorems. A
quaternion is, in fact, a generalized or hypercomplex
number..." (H.J. Josephs, "The Heaviside Papers Found at
Paignton in 1957," Electromagnetic Theory by Oliver
Heaviside, Including an account of Heaviside's unpublished
notes for a fourth volume, and with a foreword by Sir
Edmund Whittaker, Vol. III, Third Edition, Chelsea
Publishing Co., New York, 1971, p. 660.)
[6] See E.T. Whittaker, "On the Partial Differential Equations
of Mathematical Physics," Math. Ann., Vol. 57, 1903, p.
333355; "On an Expression of the Electromagnetic Field Due
to Electrons by Means of Two Scalar Potential Functions,"
Proc. Lond. Math. Soc., Series 2, Vol. 1, 1904, p. 367372.
[7] In the modern view, it is trapped energy that is
gravitational, mass being viewed as simply such trapped
energy. We point out that Einstein's formula E = mc^2
actually is an expression for mass in terms of its trapped
EM energy. Thus we extend the modern view by stating that,
to first order, Newtonian gravitational attraction is due
to the attraction of spatially entrapped electromagnetic
energy. Since the electromagnetic scalar potentials
represent just such spatially entrapped EM energy, then
they hold a special significance gravitationally.
[8] This assertion can be tested. At the nodal points of the
standing potential wave, the rate of flow of time is
normal. At nonzero points along the wave, however, the
local rate of flow of local time varies from normal. After
a propertime interval for the observer at the nodal point,
Page 16
normal clocks and watches at different nonnodal points
along the wave will appreciably vary in their time reading.
Initially synchronized clocks will thus be found to
disagree, if placed in different positions in the Whittaker
wave and allowed to remain for a test period. In the past,
various inventors have anecdotally demonstrated this
effect. As an example, see David Jones, Vancouver Sun
Times, Dec. 17, 1977, p. 17.
[9] V.K. Ignatovich, "The Remarkable Capabilities of Recursive
Relations," Am. J. Phys., 57(10), Oct. 1989, p. 873878.
[10] Richard W. Ziolkowski, "Localized transmission of wave
energy," Proc. SPIE, Vol. 1061, Microwave and Particle Beam
Sources and Directed Energy Concepts, Jan. 1989, p. 396397.
[11] An acoustic missile is essentially a slug of acoustic energy
that holds together as it travels, striking and damaging or
destroying a target. An electromagnetic missile is a slug
of EM energy that holds together as it travels to a target
and strikes it.
[12] A.D. Sakharov, "Vacuum Quantum Fluctuations in Curved Space
and the Theory of Gravitation," Sov. Phys. Dokl., Vol. 12,
1968, p. 1040. See also the related discussion in Misner,
Thorne and Wheeler, Gravitation, 1973, p. 426.
[13] Note that this assigns an internal structure to a
gravitational potential.
[14] A.D. Sakharov, Theor. Math. Phys., Vol. 23, 1975, p. 435.
[15] K. Akama et al, Prog. Theor. Phys., Vol. 60, 1978, p. 868.
[16] B. Hasslacher and E. Mottolo, Phys. Lett., Vol. 95B, 1980,
p. 237.
[17] A. Zee, Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 42, 1979, p. 417.
[18] D. Amati and G. Veneziano, Phys. Lett., Vol. 105B, 1981, p.
358; S. Yoshimoto, Prog. Theor. Phys., Vol. 78, 1987, p.
435.
[19] S. Adler, Rev. Mod. Phys., Vol. 54, 1982, p. 729.
[20] H.E. Puthoff, "Ground State of Hydrogen as a ZeroPoint
FluctuationDetermined State," Phys. Rev. D, 35(10), May 15,
1987, p. 32663269.
[21] H.E. Puthoff, "Gravity as a ZeroPointFluctuation Force,"
Phys. Rev. A., 39(5), Mar. 1, 1989, p. 23332342. See also
H.E. Puthoff, "Source of Vacuum electromagnetic ZeroPoint
Energy," Phys. Rev. A., 40(9), Nov. 1, 1989, p. 48574862.
Changing the vacuum potential constitutes a fluctuation
directly in and of the zeropoint energy of vacuum, and
hence, by Puthoff's mechanism, it does indeed induce a
gravitational effect. At the level of the vacuum virtual
particle flux exchange with the charged nucleus, producing
Page 17
an electromagnetic change also produces a gravitational
change, and viceversa.
[22] Puthoff, Phys. Rev. D., 35(10), May 15, 1987, p. 32663269.
[23] Nikola Tesla, Colorado Springs Notes 18991900, Nolit,
Belgrade, Yugoslavia, 1978, p. 6162.
[24] E.T. Whittaker, "On an Expression of the Electromagnetic
Field Due to Electrons by Means of Two Scalar Potential
Functions," Proc. Lond. Math. Soc., Series 2, Vol. 1,
1904, p. 367372.
[25] The potential for weaponization of the Whittaker work should
be obvious.
[26] Toward the end of his life Heaviside lived as a recluse in a
small garret apartment, and may have returned again to his
struggle with quaternions. In the 1950's handwritten notes
of a theory of gravitation, written in quaternion
mathematics, were found beneath the floor boards of his tiny
study.
[27] T.E. Bearden, "Maxwell's Original Quaternion Theory Was a
Unified Field Theory of Electromagnetics and
Electrogravitation," Proceedings, International Tesla
Society Symposium, Colorado Springs, Colorado, July 1988.
See also T.E. Bearden, "Maxwell's Lost Unified Field Theory
of Electromagnetics and Gravitation," Proceedings, PACE
Third International New Energy Technology Symposium, June
2528, 1988 at Maison du Citoyen, Hull (Ottawa), Canada,
1988.
[28] See Floyd Sweet and T.E. Bearden, "Utilizing Scalar
Electromagnetics to Tap Vacuum Energy," Proceedings, this
conference.
[29] Ironically, Einstein then spent the remainder of his life,
desperately trying to unify electromagnetics and gravitation
in his theory of general relativity, never realizing that
his own overstatement of his "flat local spacetime"
postulate precluded his success and foredoomed all his
efforts to failure.
[30] To appreciate just what can actually be done with local
spacetime curvature, see E.B. Smetanin, "Electromagnetic
Field in a Space With Curvature  New Solutions," Sov. Phys.
J., 25(2), Feb. 1982, p. 107111.
[31] For a detailed exposition of the scientific suppression used
to uphold the present GR, written by an inside scientist of
excellent ability, and one with over 100 published papers in
the literature, see Rugero Maria Santilli, Ethical Probe on
Einstein's Followers in the USA: An Insider's View, Alpha
Publishing, POB 82, Newtonville, MA 02160, 1984.
[32] For a discussion of the missing chaos in quantum mechanics,
see Robert Pool, "Quantum Chaos: Enigma Wrapped in a
Mystery," Science, 243(4893), Feb. 17, 1989, p. 893895.
Page 18
For a more technical discussion see P.V. Elyutin, "The
Quantum Chaos Problem," Sov. Phys. Usp. 31(7), July 1988,
p. 597622.
[33] For an entry point into the literature of hidden variable
theory, see Quantum Implications: Essays in Honour of David
Bohm, B. J. Hiley and F. David Peat, Eds., Routledge &
Kegan Paul, London & New York, 1987.
[34] However, even if it predicts something new and is warranted,
it still may not be adopted. An example is the continuing
reluctance of physicists to reformulate EM theory, stressing
the primacy of the potential and the fact that not the force
field but only the potential for the force field exists in
the vacuum. Even more so, it is wellknown that detection
is actually binary, and we throw away precisely half of
almost every detection our instruments make. C.f. Richard
Kidd et al, "Evolution of the Modern Photon," Am. J. Phys.,
57(1), Jan. 1989, p. 2735. Generally in every
electromagnetic interaction of our instruments, two photons
are produced: one a timeforward photon, and the other a
timereversed photon. Our detectors essentially measure the
timeforward photon half, not the timereversed photon
(antiphoton) half. The antiphoton half produces a slight
recoil force (Newton's third law reaction force) in the mass
(nuclei) of the instrument, which we ignore. Also, we
continue to ignore the evidence that the photon and
antiphoton are not identical. In a pumped phase conjugate
mirror, for example, the emission of a normal photon from
the mirror material results in a recoil of the mirror; the
emission of an antiphoton by the mirror material, however,
does not result in recoil of the mirror. Physics is still
not consistent, as is wellknown to foundations researchers,
but this fact is generally not accented to university
students.
[35] Bearden, Gravitobiology, Tesla Book Co., 1991, p. 3336.
The mechanism was previously advanced in several
miscellaneous papers and in private correspondence.
[36] See Bearden, Gravitobiology, Tesla Book Co., for additional
development of biological effects and mechanisms of scalar
EM.
*******************
End of paper
*******************

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