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ELECTROMAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MATTER DERIVED FROM A NEW MODEL OF
INTERACTION BETWEEN MATTEN AND VACUUM SPACE
By : Ove Tedenstig
Idungatan 37, 19 551 M „ rsta
Sweden
(Published in Galilean ElectroDynamics, June 1993)
ABSTRACT
Electromagnetic theory as developed by many great scientists during
a period of more than two centuries has been very successful. But
many problems and questions remain unsolved. Source an origin of
electro-magnetism is still not fully understood or explained.
The model here presented will offer a new understanding of electro-
magnetism. It is shown that electromagnetism is a result of a
continuous interaction process between matter and the vacuum space.
Electromagnetism is reduced to a problem which can be described in
terms of pure Newtonian physics.
=====================
Vacuum, or "empty space" is a concept used when trying to describe a
void or a lack of matter. However, ever since Maxwell's days, this
vacuum space has been allotted physical properties by associating
physical constants to it. Two such constants are Eo, the
PERMITTIVITY of the vacuum constant, and uo, the PERMEABILITY of the
vacuum constant, associated with the electrical and magnetic
properties of the electromagnetic field, respectively.
When an electric voltage is connected to two plane parallel metal
plates (a capacitor), a displacement current seems to flow through
the "empty void" situated between the two plates.
A current of electrons then flows through the wires connecting the
two plates from the battery.
The question we may ask is whether this void between the two plates
is empty or if there is something hidden there which mediates the
current?
Page 1
When the capacitor has been charged, it has stored energy which
later on can be supplied to an outer user. Then the next
interesting question is, WHERE is the seat of this energy?
A similar problem arises when letting an electric current flow
through a metallic wire (a conductor). A magnetic field then is
created, giving rise to a magnetic force on another conductor in the
vicinity. Even here energy is stored and the question may be
repeated: where is the seat of that energy?
In a careful studium we will come to the conclusion that THE VACUUM
ITSELF is the seat of that energy. That will lead us to a hydro-
dynamical model of electromagnetism, a model which we shall here
discuss briefly.
**********************
THE THEORY
Energy is defined by two main variables, mass and velocity.
Transmitting these definitions to space we can imagine that property
of space as a field of an invisible and un-touchable fluidum
RESPONSIBLE for this energy storing.
The field may be seen as a pre-stage of what we normally define as
matter. Material particles then are parts of this field being
fluctuations like condensed cores or drops in a cloud of rain.
Particles interact with this field by exchanging energy and matter
with it continously.
As a consequence of these ideas, elementary particles as for
instance electrons, are built up by stuff of this field but having a
different and more ordered structure than the field. This order in
chaos then makes the difference between matter and the vacuum space.
q,C OOOO q,C
------> OOOOOO <------
------> OOOO <------
qp,c External and internal pressure of
particle are the same
RULES OF INTERACTION BETWEEN PARTICLE AND VACUUM SPACE
*) The amount of mass streaming into a particle is the same
as this mass streaming out from it during the same time.
*) Outer impact forces from the field impinging on the limiting
area of the particle is in balance with INHERENT EXPANSIVE
FORCES.
*) The energy density of a particle is the same as the energy
density of the outer vacuum field.
*) The impulse density of the mass streaming into a particle is
the same as this impulse density streaming out from it.
Hence, electro-magnetism is a result of a continuous interaction
process between particle and space. Mass from the field of density q
and velocity C streams into the particle which converts it to an
outstreaming field of another density, qp, and velocity, c. This in
Page 2
and out-stream of matter we define as the electric field.
NEWTON'S SECOND LAW OF FORCE
There is a persistent statement of the modern physic that Newton's
fundamental laws are limited and partly erroneous.
That is only true for the approximated case where the mass of a
moving body is treated as a constant entity. Written in its complete
form Newton's second law of force is written :
(1) ================================
F= d/dt(mv) = dm/dt.v + m.dv/dt
================================
or in words, force is change of impulse (the product of mass and
velocity) according with time.
MASS FLOW
Beside Newton's fundamental laws we also need some other basic
relations from the fundamental physics.
From hydromechanics (neglecting vector notations) we get the
following relation:
(2) ======================
m= q.A.t.v
======================
which says that the inflow mass to and through an area A will be, m,
during the time, t, if the field density is, q, and having the
velocity, v.
Combining results from 1) and 2) then gives :
(3) =======================
2
F/A = q.v
=======================
where F/A represents the outer impact pressure, q is the vacuum mass
field density and, C, the field medium velocity of free field
entities.
===================
THE PRESSURE OF VACUMM SPACE
We study an electron (or proton) as an entity of torus form, having
a closed area, A. The outer pressure on that area is calculated from
(3) to :
(4) =======================
2
F/A = q.C
=======================
Page 3
where F/A is outer the pressure, q is the vacuum mass density and,
C, the field medium velocity of free field entities.
Matter of a primitive particle is a plasma of space field matter.
With aid of (4) then the internal pressure of the particle then can
be calculated to :
(5) =======================
2
F/A = qp.c
=======================
where, qp, is the particle mass density and, c, is the limit
velocity of matter (numerically the same as the light velocity in
free space).
External pressure of space and internal pressure of particle is the
same. Equivalence between (4) and (5) then gives:
(6) =====================
2 2
q = c /C . qp
=====================
There exists several particles with the same charge but with
different mass (electron and protons for instance with a mass
difference of appr. 2000 times). But for reason of limit of space
here, we limit outself to the electron as our reference particle,
the electron :
============================================================
PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF THE ELECTRON
============================================================
2 2 2
Interacting area : Ae = Ka.re = 2.Pi.re
3 2 3
Particle volume : Ve = Kv.re = 2.Pi .re
Converting time : te = Kt.re/c = 2.Pi.re/c
3
Mass density : qp= me/Ve = me/(Kv.re )
Relation area/volume: Ka/Kv = 1
============================================================
According to the basic rules of interaction between particle and
space, as defined above, mass streaming into the particle will be
the same as the mass streaming out from it, measured over the same
time. That gives the equalities :
(7) ======================
me= q.A.te.C The amount of mass streaming IN from
space to the electron during its
converting time
Page 4
mout= qout.Ae.te.c The amount of mass streaming OUT from
the particle to space during the same
time.
===========================
The electron converting time is defined as the time it takes for an
electron to exchange its whole mass content to the outer space
environment (see definition in figure 3). Then equality between in
and outflow in formula 7 gives :
(8) ==================
qout= c.C/c The outstream mass density closed to
the particle surface
==================
Because the outflow velocity is c (equal to the inherent limit
velocity of matter in the particle plasma), the impulse field on
distance, r, out from the source point is given by :
(9) ===================
_ 2 _ 2
E =(q.C).re .n/r The electric field density in a point
on distance r from the source point
===================
During the electron converting time (see figure 3), the electron's
entire mass is exchanged to the environment space. Then by combining
results from (6) and (8), where in and outstreaming mass is equal to
the electron particle mass, gives :
(10) =====================
C = Kt.(Ka/Kv).c Velocity and density of space
=====================
DERIVING THE COULOMB'S LAW OF ELECTRIC FORCE
Coulomb's law of electric force is the most well-known law of
electromagnetism. Studying two points containing N1 and N2 electrons
respectively, the N1 collection will spread a mass impulse field in
accord with (9).
This mass impulse is absorbed by the N2 electrons situated in
another point on distance, r, and re-emitted by the electron's
inherent spin, giving rise to a counter reaction force, all in
accord with Newton's basic mass inertial laws.
Calculating this electric field mass density on distance, r, by
using (7) and the total mass inflow by (8) gives :
(11) ===========================================================
2
_ min.c _
F = ------- . n.N1.N2 =
re
Page 5
2 2
q.(Kt.Ka.SQRT/Ka/kt).re .c.N).(Kt.Ka.SQRT(Ka/Kt).re .c.N) _
--------------------------2-------------------------------.n
Ka.re
=================================================================
Rewriting this result and inserting results from (1=) then gives :
(12) ===================== Coulomb's law as empirically
_ Q1.Q2 _ derived by experiments
F = -------2---.n
Ka.Eo.r
==========================
from which we can identify:
(13) ==================================
2
Q1 = Kt.Ka.SQRT(Ka/Kv).re .c.N1 Electric "charge" of a
2 particle collection with
Q2 = Kt.Ka.SQRT(Ka/Kv).re .c.N2 N1 or N2 unit charges
2
eo = Kt.Ka.SQRT(Ka/Kv).re .c The unit charge (the
charge of the electron
q= 1/Eo ; Eo = 1/q The mass density of space
and the parmeability of
space
=======================================
Using the "charge concept" is the common way to characterize a
particles ability to interact electrically with its environment.
THE ELECTRIC FIELD STRENGTH AROUND A CHARGED PARTICLE
We have defined the electric field strength around a particle in
formula (9). Using results from (10) and (13) we can rewrite this
result to:
(14) ===================================
_ Q _
E = SQRT(Ka/Kv). --------2---.n
Ka.Eo.r
===================================
which correspond with common theory for SQRT(Ka/Kv)=1.
THE STORED ENERGY IN A PLANE ELECTRIC CAPACITOR
__________________________
A ! !
================= !
D ! VOLUME= A.D ! -
================= --- +
! -------
! !
!--------------------------
Page 6
Because the outflow velocity is c (equal to the inherent limit
velocity of matter in the particle plasma), the impulse field on
distance, r, out from the source point is given by : (? missing
reference).
In an electric capacitor, electric energy is stored in the space
between the two plates. Our idea is that the hidden vacuum field in
the space between the two plates is actuated by the free electrons
on the plates. The matter associated with this field enclosed by the
two plates is :
(15) ====================
Mq = q.A.D The total field mass enclosed
between the plates in a plain
electric capacitor.
====================
During the electron converting time (as defined in figure (3), N
free electrons exchange its mass to space. This mass is calculated
by :
(16) ==========================
min= (me.N) = q.A.te.vf
==========================
vf is the effective velocity of the q field driven by the
interacting process from the free electrons. We solve out this
velocity to :
(17) =========================
vf= me.N/(q.A.te) The velocity of the q field
enclosed between the plates
of a capacitor
=========================
Then, by using Newton's common law for calculating energy of a slow
moving mass we get :
(18)
====================================================================
2 2
1/2.(Kt.Ka.SQRT(Ka/Kv).re .c.N).(Kt.Ka.SQRT(Ka/Kv).re .c.N)
-----------------------2-----------3-----------------------
.(D/A).(Ka/Kv)
Ka.Kt .(Ka/Kv).re /me
which is converted to :
Q1.Q2
W= 1/2. --------.(D/A).(Ka/Kv)
Eo
====================================================================
which is the same result as for common electromagnetic theory if
Ka/Kv=1.
Page 7
THE ELECTRIC VOLTAGE OVER A PLANE ELECTRIC CAPACITOR
Electric voltage is by common theory defined as the length integral
of the electric field strength, hence :
(19) =========================
s _ _ Electric volatage is defined
U = I E.ds.n by the length integral of the
electric field strength
=========================
For making it possible to make a comparison by our theory, we use
the same definition. Then by integrating (9) we get :
(20) ==================================================
2
(Kt.Ka.SQRT(Ka/Kv).re .c.N).SQRT(Ka/Kv)
1/q. -------------------2---------------------.D
Ka.r
which can be converted to :
Q.D
U = -------.SQRT(Ka/Kv)
Eo.A
=======================================================
a result which corresponds with common theory for the case of
SQRT(Ka/Kv)=1
ELECTRIC CURRENT - THE ZERO IMPEDANCE OF VACUUM SPACE
There are two basic ways of defining electric current. In common
theory current is defined as the amount of "charge" which passes a
cross area per unit time.
(21) ===================
i= Q/t Electric current as defined in the
common way
===================
The other way is to define the number of unit charges which passes
the same cross area per unit time, hence :
(22) ===================
Electric current as defined by the
IN = N/t number of unit charges passing
=================== a cross area per unit time
By using the common definition of impedance, we can calculate the
space impedance in a capacitor by using the formulae (20) and (21),
hence giving :
(23) ==========================
Z = U/i
Page 8
eo.D.SQRT(Ka/Kv)
Z = --------------------
Eo.Ae.eo.c
===========================
Using limit values of the plane capacitor for the voltage (20) and
the current (21), the zero or limit impedance of space can be
calculated.
The limit values are achieved for the case where the capacitor
consists only by two single electrons with interacting area Ae on a
mutual distance D=2.re from each other. Using (23) and replacing Ae
with the electron area gives :
(24) ===============================
For D=2.re and Ka= 2.Kt
1 Zo is the zero
Zo = ----.SQRT(Ka/Kt) impedance of free
Eo.c space
===============================
which corresponds with common theory for the case where
SQRT(Ka/Kv)=1.
THE CAPACITANCE CONCEPT
We define a function f(x) which expresses the ability of a capacitor
to store energy as a function of its geometrical properties together
with properties of the environment space :
(25) =======================
2
W = 1/2.f(x).U
=======================
Using results from (18) (20) then gives :
(26) =====================
A.Eo C is the common symbole
f(x) = ----------= C of electric capaciatance
D
=====================
The f(x) is the capacitance of the capacitor, usually denoted by
letter C, (Farad).
===================================
THE MAGNETIC FIELD
When a charged particle moves, the environment void is effected in a
very special manner. The physical phenomena and properties of the
space associated to it is known by the concept of magnetism.
Page 9
Y
!
The moving charge in ----
the conductor creates ! !
a torsional effect in ---- ----> X
a space element . .
outside a conductor . . C=inflow
by reason of a time c . . velocity
phase shift of . .
in and out . . c= outflow
streaking . . velocity
fields ------------------------------
-----> v
------------------------------
<--------- ds=v.dt ---------->
A simple way to distinguish between the electric and magnetic field
is to say that ELECTRIC PHENOMENA are associated with charges AT
REST and MAGNETIC PHENOMENA are associated with CHARGED PARTICLES
WHEN MOVING.
Our ambition to begin with is to derive Biot-Savart's law for the B-
field around a conductor, a physical law of similar importance as
Coulomb's law of the electric field.
We start from the most simple arrangement, a straight metallic wire
in which an electric current flows. This electric current consists
of free charges, carrying the electric current, put forward by an
external voltage source to the end point of the wire loop. The wire
is placed out in an x,y,z coordinate system.
The current carrying particles - the electrons - are supposed to be
smoothly distributed over the whole wire length. Hence, in a small
section, s, there are N free electrons and the number of such
electrons per length unit are (N/s) being a constant entity, K :
(27) ===================
K = Ns/s ; N =ds.K
===================
The statical electric field from these free electrons is arrived at
by (9) :
(28) ==================
_ _ _
E = qr.c ; qr= /E/c/
==================
It is our purpose to get a physical understanding of the magnetic
field so we take aid of the figure 6 above. In a point outside the
conductor, the field mass of the electric field is streaming in and
out from the free electrons of the chosen segment, ds. THE INFLOW
VELOCITY IS FASTER (see 10) than the corresponding outflow velocity
(being equal to c). The result will be a torsional effect in the
chosen space point. The angle between inflow and outflow vectors is
"b" and is calculated by the general sinusial theorem :
Page 10
(29) ==========================================
sin a sin B
-------- = --------- ; sin B = (v/c).sina
c.dt v.dt
==========================================
which is approximately valid for the assumption that the inflow
velocity, C, IS MUCH LARGER than the outflow velocity, c.
Then, the magnetic field strength is the product of the electric
field mass on distance, r, (8) and this torsional component, sinb,
hence given by :
(3) ================================
_
B = qr.sin B Definition of magnetic
flux density
_
B = qr.(v/c).sin a by using (29)
_ _
AxB = /A/./B/.sin a from common vector theory
_ _ _
B = qr.(v/c).sin a = (E/c)x(v/c)
=================================
From the definition of electric current (21) we had :
(31) ==================
_ _
v =(ds/Q).i
==================
where the time function has been replaced by dt=ds/v, where , v,
represents the medium current velocity in the conductor. The result
of (31) inserted in (30) then gives :
(32) ======================
_ _ ds _
dB = E x ------.i
Q.c
======================
and by using results of the electric field from (9) and integrating
along the whole conductor length gives :
(33) ===================================
_ SQRT(Ka/Kv) s _ 3 -
B = ------2------.I r/r X i.ds
Eo.c .Ka
===================================
FORMULA 33
===================
from which we can define the permittivity of vacuum constant to:
Page 11
(34) ====================
SQRT(Ka/Kv)
uo = ------2-
Eo.c
====================
All these results correspond well with common theory for the case
where SQRT(Ka/Kv)=1.
HOW AN ELECTROMOTORIC FORCE IS GENERATED
BY INDUCTION IN A MAGNETIC FIELD
When a metallic conductor moves in a magnetic field, an
electromotoric force is generated, represented by a flowing current
or a voltage over it.
The effect will arise mainly by two reasons
1) if the magnetic field density is changed in accord with time or
2) if the conductor is accelerated or retarded in the B-field.
The remarkable thing is that THESE TWO EFFECTS CORRESPOND with the
two terms in Newton's second law of force. The first term gives :
(35) =========================
F = fm/dt.v + m.dv/dt
F = dm/dt.v
=========================
Dividing with a small volume element, dV, gives a term dm/dV which
is the B-field strength. Multiplying both sides with ds.dt gives the
unity of voltage, hence :
(36) ===================================
(dm/dV)
F/dV = ----------.v
dt
F.dt.ds
------- = (dB/dt).v.dt.ds
dV
For F.dt.ds/dV = U ; v=c and dt=dr/c :
U = (dB/dt).dr.ds = (dB/dt).dA Electric voltage by
induction
====================================
In a similar way we treat the second part of Newton's second law of
force. Dividing both sides with a volume element, dV, gives the m/dV
which is the B field strength. Then multiplying both sides with
dt.ds giving the unity of voltage, hence:
Page 12
(37) =======================================
F.dt.ds
-------= B.(dv/dt).dt.ds
dV
For F.dr.ds/dV = U ; dt=dr/c gives :
U = B.(dv/dt).dr.ds = B.(dv/dt).dA/c Electric voltage by
induction
========================================
The total electromotoric effect then will be the sum of (36) and
(37), giving :
(37) ===================================
U = ( dB/dt + (B/c).dv/dt ).dA
===================================
(The second term is not known by common theory)
THE FORCE EFFECT ON A CONDUCTOR SITUATED IN A CONSTANT B FIELD
It is a well known effect that a conductor placed in a constant B-
field will be effected by a magnetic force. The reason lies in the
disturbing effect which the B field introduces on the spinning
electrons in the conductor. This disturbance is represented by a
mass inflow, min, which in combination with the electron spin give
rise to a force calculated by:
(39) ============================================
min = q.A.t.v
2
min.c B.(A0.c.Kt.N).to.c.ds
F = ------- = ----------------------- =
re re.Kt.to
B.(Q/t).ds.SQRT(Kv/Ka) = B.i.ds.SQRT(Kv/Ka)
s
F = IB.i.ds.SQRT(Kv/Ka)
===================================================
where the calculated force effect is the same as for common theory
in the case where SQRT(Ka/Kv)=1.
THE ENERGY STORED IN A MAGNETIC FIELD
The energy stored in a magnetic field is a mechanical energy stored
by moving entities in the vacuum field, hence can be calculated by
Newtons general laws of non-relativistic mass :
(40) ========================
2
W = (1/2).m.v
========================
Page 13
The mass M here is represented by the mass in a small volume
element, dV, outside the conductor, hence :
(41) ==================
M= dV.q
==================
If vf is the effective velocity of the current in the conductor, the
impulse q.vf is transferred to the outside space and converted to
the impulse of B.c, giving the equality :
(42) ===================
_ _
B.c = q.vf
_ _
vf = B/q.c
===================
Inserting result from (41) and (42) in (40) then gives the stored
energy per volume unit of the magnetic field :
(43) ===============================
2 2 2
W = (1/2).(dV.q).B.c /q
2
W/dV = (1/2).B /uo
===============================
MAXWELL's EQUATIONS OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD
The nucleus of James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic theory from
1867 consist of a set of formulae which describe the behavior of
electric and magnetic field propagation. The theory was from the
beginning an "aether" or mechanical theory, but this interpretation
of electromagnetism later on was denied.
Today only a barren shell of mathematical formalism reminds us of
the "aether theory" and these do not say much of the cause and
source of electromagnetism. The scientific value of these formulae
therefore may be put into question since they seem to have been
overestimated in importance.
However, the most famous are:
(44a) ==========================
__ _
\/ E = 0 The electric field at free
radiation from ap point source
(44b) ==========================
__ _
\/ B = 0 The magnetic field at free
(44c) ==========================
__ _ _
\/ E = -D B/Dt ( D is the partial derivative)
Page 14
(44d) ==========================
__ _ 2 _
\/ B = (1/c ).D E/ Dt
DERIVING THE FORMULAE
Because of space limitations, 44a and 44b are not derived here.
However, it is a relatively easy task to get these results, which
are achieved by deriving the field strength out from an electric or
magnetic point source in respect to its coordinates, x,y and z.
Therefore, we concentrate ourselves only on the two remaining
formulae, which mainly are got by vectorially manipulating the base
equation (30). (44c) is achieved by taking the time derivative of
this equation, the (44d) is arrived at by taking the space
derivative of it.
(45) ================================
_ _
_ E x v
B = ----2-- (from 30)
c
_ _
_ E x v
DB/Dt = D/Dt ( ----2---- ) =
c
__ _ 2 _ _ 2 2 __ _
\/ v/ c.(E x v ) = -v /c .( \/ x E )
__ _
For v=c DB/Dt = - \/ X E
(46) ===================================================
__ _ __ _ _ 2
\/ x B = \/ x ( E x v/c )
__ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _
\/ x B = DE/Dt - v( \/.E ) - (E. \/).v + E( \/.v )
\------------/ \-----------------------------------/
Result Will be zero for a non accelerating
according to point source
Maxwell
__ _ _
\/ x B = DE/Dt The result in accord with
Maxwell valid for a non
accelerating point source
==========================================================
LIGHT AND ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
Beside these famous equations treated above, historically Maxwell is
famous for predicting electromagnetic fields propagating in the same
way as light in free space. The conclusions were made on the basis
of comparing results from the general wave equation based on how
sound in air or mechanical waves were propagating in a medium, air
and water for instance.
But the modern physics do not confess any existence of a light
Page 15
bearing aether, and the contradictory problem in Maxwell's theories
therefore still remain. Vectorial manipulations are performed on
results from (45) and (47) as shown in below.
(48) ================================================
__ _ _
\/ x E = -DB/Dt (from 45)
__ _ 2 _
\/ x B = 1/c . D/Dt .E (from 47)
__ __ _ __2 _ __ __ _ __2 _
\/ x ( \/ x E ) ? - \/ E + \/( \/ E ) = - \/ E
__ _
( \/ E is equal to zero for a point source )
__ __ _ __ _ __ _
\/ x ( \/ x E ) = - \/(DB/Dt) = - D/Dt( \/ x B ) =
2 _ 2 2 2 _
D/Dt(1/c.D/Dt.E ) = 1/c .D /Dt .E
__ _ 2 2 2 _
- \/ E = 1/c . D /Dt .E
(49) =====================================================
__ _ _
\/ x E = DB/Dt (from 45)
__ _ 2 _
\/ x B = 1/c .D/Dt.E (from 47)
__ __ _ __2 _ __ __ _ __2 _
\/x( \/ x B ) = - \/ B + \/( \/ B ) = - \/ B
__ _
( \/ B is zero for a point source =
__ __ _ __ 2 _
\/ x ( \/ x B ) = \/( 1/c. D/Dt.E ) =
2 __ _ 2 2 2 _
1/c .D/Dt( \/ x E ) = 1/c . D /Dt .B
__2 _ 2 2 2 _
- \/ B = 1/c . D /Dt .B
=======================================================
The general wave equation is written :
(50) =============================
__2 2 2 2
\/ Y = 1/v . D /Dt . Y
=============================
The mathematical structure of (48),(49) and (50) is the same and it
was this mathematical equivalency which gave Maxwell the idea of
light being a medium carried wave. Since then many experiments have
Page 16
been perfomed using light, clearly showing that no active light
aether to exist. Only the mathematical equivalency remains intact.
DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CONSTANTS AND UNITS
As an important consequence of this theory we can establish a new
dimensional system where even the electromagnetic units are covered
within the realm of Newton's ordinary units of Mass, Time and
Length. This unit analysis is presented in a table, being a useful
source of the TRUE SOURCE source and understanding of
electromagnetism.
====================================
PHYSICAL ENTITY DIMENSION
M L T
------------------------------------
MASS +1 0 0
LENGTH 0 +1 0
TIME 0 0 +1
VELOCITY 0 +1 -1
ACCELERATION 0 +1 -2
AREA 0 +2 0
VOLUME 0 +3 0
WAVELENGTH 0 +1 0
FREQUENCY 0 0 -1
MASS DENSITY +1 -3 0
MASS IMPULSE +1 +1 -1
MASS MOMENTUM -1 -2 -1
FORCE +1 +1 -2
ENERGY +1 +2 -2 Example :
POWER +1 +2 -3 2
PRESSURE +1 -1 -2 Energy = m.v =
MOMENTUM +1 +2 -2 2
ELECTRIC CHARGE 0 +3 -1 m.(s/t) =
EL.CURRENT 0 +3 -2
PERMITTIBITY -1 3 0 2 2
PERMEABILITY +1 -5 +2 M.(L /T ) -->
EL. VOLTAGE +1 -1 -1
EL. IMPEDANCE +1 -4 +1 +1 +2 -2
EL. CAPACITANCE -1 +4 0
EL. INDUCTANCE +1 -4 +2
EL. FIELD STRENGTH +1 -2 -1
MAGN. FIELD STRENGTH +1 -3 0
MAGNETIC FLUX +1 -1 0
PLANCK CONSTANT +1 +2 -1
GRAVITY CONSTANT -1 +3 -2
HUBBLE CONSTANT 0 0 -1
ATOMIC FINE STR.CONST 0 0 0
RYDBERG CONSTANT 0 -1 0
CONCLUSIONS
Our analysis shows that electromagnetic phenomena are pure
mechanical processes of matter on which Newtonian mechanical laws
can be applied. Space is associated with a very high DENSE MEDIUM,
3
1/Eo=1.13E11 kg/m
Page 17
and having an energy density of
2 3
q.C =4E29 Ws/m approximately.
The pressure on closed particle surfaces is in the order of
2
4E28 N/m
holding particles and matter together.
Hence, electromagnetism, seems to be PURE MECHANICAL PROCESSES
of matter. These new insights will offer a platform for describing
electromagnetism and other processes of fundamental nature.
References : PHYSICS HANDBOOK
Chartwell-Bratt Ltd, Old Orchard, Bickley Road,
Bromley, Kent BR1 2NE, England ISBM 3-88598-007-X
ELECTIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS
Cambridge University Press 1976, ISBN 0 521 21228 6
or ISBN 0 521 29076 7, 32 East 57th Street, New York
OWN WORKS:
A NEW WAY TO PHYSICS, ISBN 91 97077534,
1990, paperback 500 pages
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