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Title : Gravity Paper
Keywords: GRAVITY ELECTRONICS RESONANCE
This is an ASCII file of an unpublished paper. The paper
presents a hypothesis that gravity is the result of a distortion
in space-time This paper does not present basic information and
an understanding of college/university level physics and
electronics is required. Comments are requested and should be
addressed to the address of the person posting this paper.
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A DIFFERENT POINT OF VIEW
by John R. Majka
Edited by Francis J. Ernest
AN EXPERIMENT
Let us assume that there is a charged particle in free space. There
is an observer which is at rest with respect to the charged
particle.
This observer "sees" the gravitational field and the electric field
of this particle.
Let us now add a second observer. The second observer is exactly
like the first observer except that it is travelling at some
constant speed, v, which is less than the speed of light, with
respect to the first observer and the charged particle.
This second observer also "sees" the gravitational field and the
electric field of the charged particle. However, this second
observer also "sees" a magnetic field surrounding the charged
particle.
Now, we will add a third observer which is identical to the first
two observers except that this observer is travelling at the speed
of light relative to the first observer and to the charged particle
.
According to the Theory of Relativity, the third observer must "see"
an electromagnetic wave at the location of the charged particle
since their relative speed is the speed of light.
Page 1
At the same time, the three observers see the charged particle
differently.
At a relative speed of zero, the observer "sees" a mass and an
electric field.
At a relative speed other than zero but less than that of light, the
second observer "sees" a mass, an electric field and a magnetic
field.
At a relative speed of light, the third observer "sees" an
electromagnetic wave with no gravitational field and no electric
field other than that associated with the electromagnetic wave
itself.
HYPOTHESIS
The hypothesis is that as the relative speed of a charged particle
increases from zero to that of light, the particle appears to change
to an electromagnetic wave because of the expansion of the magnetic
field. This magnetic field combines with some of the static
electric field, in proportion to the energy of the magnetic field,
to form an electromagnetic wave.
At the speed of light, the electric field is entirely combined with
the magnetic field and the particle appears as an electromagnetic
wave.
At speeds less than that of light, the magnetic field of the
electromagnetic wave collapses. The collapsing field distorts or
twists space-time which appears to us as a gravitational field.
Thus, it is the distortion of space-time which appears to us as
"mass" rather than "mass" causing the distortion.
JUSTIFICATION
Energy Density
This hypothesis seems to be justified by equations from classical
physics. The equation describing the energy density of the
particle's magnetic field, Um , is:
Um = B2 / ( 2uo )
where uo is the magnetic permeability of free space
The equation describing the energy density of the particle's
electric field, Ue , is:
Ue = eo E2
where eo is the electric permittivity of free space
The total energy, Ut, of the electric and magnetic field of a
particle travelling at some speed, v, is the sum of these two
equations. Converting to like terms and combining terms, the total
energy equation is:
Page 2
Ut = ( eo E2 / 2) ( 1 + v2 /c2 )
If we now let V = C, the equation becomes:
Ut = eo E2
which is also the energy density equation of an electromagnetic
wave.
Classical physics equations also show that the direction of the
magnetic field of a charged particle, travelling at some speed, is
such that the Poynting Vector cross product is satisfied.
That is, E x H = I.
Duality
The hypothesis is also supported by experiments which have shown
that charged particles travelling at a high speed exhibit duality.
That is, when travelling at high speeds, charged particles exhibit
particle characteristics and electromagnetic wave characteristics.
If, as is hypothesized, the magnetic field combines with a portion
of the static electric field to create an electromagnetic wave,
duality is expected.
Since the particle is only partially an electromagnetic wave, it
should exhibit duality at speeds less than light.
OBJECTIONS
Mass Increase
Bucherer Experiment
The accepted theory is that mass increases as speed increases. The
finding by Bucherer in 1908, that the electric field to mass (e/m)
ratio is less for high speed particles, has been accepted as proof
of an increase in mass.
The hypothesis proposes that the reason for this finding is not that
the mass has increased but rather that the electric field and the
mass have decreased.
That part of the electric field which combines with the magnetic
field to create an electromagnetic field can not participate in
static charge measurements.
Therefore, those experiments measuring e/m will show a lower value
for high speed particles than for slower particles.
Momentum Selector
Experiments with particle accelerators seem to show an increase in
mass with an increase in the speed of a particle.
After being accelerated, charged particles are passed through a
velocity selector which passes only those particles which are
Page 3
travelling at a predetermined speed.
Immediately, the particles are passed through a momentum selector
which is a uniform magnetic field. This magnetic field produces a
constant acceleration on the particle which causes the particle to
travel in a circular path.
The radius of the path is proportional to the linear momentum of the
particle. Since momentum is proportional to the mass of the
particle, it is assumed that the radius of the path is then
proportional to the mass of the particle.
Experiments have shown that the higher the speed of the particle,
the greater the radius through the momentum selector. It has been
assumed from these experiments that the greater radius is due to a
greater mass.
The hypothesis states that the apparent mass of the particle
decreases with relative speed and that the magnetic field combines
with a portion of the electric field to produce an electromagnetic
wave.
A decrease in apparent mass should be observed in particle
accelerator experiments by a decrease in the radius of the path of
the particle if mass were the determining factor.
However, electromagnetic waves also have a linear momentum and this
momentum is not affected by an external magnetic field.
When passed through a momentum selector, an electromagnetic wave
would pass straight through and not describe a circular path.
Since the electromagnetic wave is characteristic of the particle,
it's path is the same as the particle's path. The linear momentum
of the electromagnetic wave adds to that of the particle and
increases the radius of the path.
CHARACTERISTIC VELOCITY OF SPACE
It has been assumed that electromagnetic waves can travel only at
the speed of light. The hypothesis proposes that there is an
electromagnetic wave which is a characteristic of any charged
particle travelling at any relative speed greater than zero and less
than the speed of light.
Since electromagnetic waves travel through transmission lines and
through space, it is possible to model their propagation through
space by a transmission line analogy.
Transmission lines and space share common parameters. The most
notable are the parameters of distributed inductance (or magnetic
permeability) in henries per meter, distributed capacitance (or
electric permittivity) in farads per meter, characteristic
impedance in Ohms and characteristic velocity in meters per second.
Models of transmission lines are basic in the study of electricity
and electronics. A model circuit diagram describing a typical, real
transmission line is shown in Figure 1.
Page 4
The inductance, L, is in terms of henries per meter. The
capacitance , C, is in terms of farads per meter and the resistance,
R, is in terms of Ohms per meter.
Note that the circuit diagram basically consists of one RLC circuit
repeated for the length of the transmission line. The resistance,
R, is responsible for losses in transmission lines.
In an "ideal" transmission line, without losses, the resistance is
ignored. Since it seems that an electromagnetic wave travels
through space without losses, we may assume that the model for an
ideal transmission line is adequate for an analysis of free space.
Also, since the circuit segment is repeated for the length of the
transmission line, the analysis of one segment is sufficient.
Figure 2 shows the circuit diagram for an ideal transmission line.
Circuit modeling involves determining the voltages and currents
through the circuit. By Ohms Law (E = I x Z), the voltages and
currents are related through impedances. (Note: Impedance is
mathematically treated as a resistance.
It differs from a resistance in that there are no energy losses
through an impedance.) Figure 3 shows the same circuit with the
impedances of the circuit elements.
The values of the impedances are shown in typical electrical
analysis notation. Since the impedance of an inductor varies
directly with the frequency of the current through it or voltage
applied to it, the impedance is in terms of the frequency, jw.
Since the impedance of a capacitor varies inversely with the
frequency of the current through it or voltage applied to it, the
impedance is in terms of the inverse frequency, 1/jw. (In
electrical analysis, since the symbol "i" is used to represent
current flow, the symbol "j" is used to represent the square root of
-1 and the symbol, w or omega, is used to represent frequency where
w = 2 pi f.)
It can be seen that this circuit is also the circuit of a series L-C
circuit. To go from a transmission line model to a series L-C
circuit model all we need do is change the terms of the parameters
from henries/meter and farads/meter to henries and farads. The
normalized transfer function, H(jw), of such a circuit is:
H(jw) = 1/( w2 - wo2)
The symbol w represents the frequency of the signal applied to the
circuit. The symbol wo represents the resonant frequency of the
circuit and it is numerically equal to the square root of (1/LC).
The resonant frequency is the frequency preferred by the circuit.
If a signal was applied to the circuit and it was not at the
resonant frequency, the circuit would offer an impedance to the
signal.
If a signal at the resonant frequency was applied to the circuit,
Page 5
the circuit would offer no impedance. The reason for this is that
the impedance of the inductor (jw) varies directly with the
frequency of the applied signal.
The impedance of the capacitor (1/jw) varies inversely with the
frequency of the applied signal. At the resonant frequency, the
magnitude of the impedance offered by the inductor and the capacitor
are equal.
Impedances due to inductors and capacitors are vector quantities.
The direction of the inductor's impedance vector varies directly
with the frequency of the applied signal in the positive direction.
The direction of the capacitor's impedance vector also varies
directly with the frequency of the applied signal but in the
negative direction.
At resonance, the magnitudes of the impedances are equal but the
vectors are 180 degrees out of phase with each other and thus
cancel. At resonance, the circuit offers no impedance.
The values for L and C in a series L-C circuit are in terms of
henries and farads. The resonant frequency, wo, is equal to the
square root of (1/LC).
The resonant frequency, then, is in terms of 1/second or Hertz.
If we were to substitute henries per meter and farads per meter for
the values of the circuit elements, then resonance would be in terms
of meters per second.
Instead of a resonant frequency we would have a resonant velocity.
Indeed, for transmission lines, the velocity of propagation is the
square root o (1/LC).
The speed of light is the square root of (1/uoeo) which are the
magnetic permeability and electric permittivity of free space.
Therefore, we may assume that the speed of light is the resonant
velocity of free space.
The series L-C circuit does not forbid frequencies other than the
resonant frequency but it does provide an impedance to them.
Similarly, we may assume that the universe does not forbid speeds
other than the speed of light but would provide an impedance to
them.
Electromagnetic waves, which are characteristic of charged
particles, can travel at speeds other than the speed of light.
We should note that the series L-C circuit does not prohibit
frequencies greater than the resonant frequency.
Since the analogy between series L-C circuits and free space has
held in other circumstances we may assume that space also does not
prohibit speeds greater than resonant speed but will provide an
impedance to them.
Page 6
STEADY-STATE IMPEDANCES
The hypothesis predicts that electromagnetic waves can travel at
speeds other than at the speed of light.
At light speed, the universe offers no impedance to the propagation
of electromagnetic waves.
At other than light speeds, it is expected that the universe will
provide an impedance to these waves.
We are familiar with speeds less than light. At a zero relative
speed, the "stopped" electromagnetic wave appears as a "particle"
and exhibits a gravitational field and an electric field.
In the series L-C circuit, the impedance encountered by a signal
with a frequency of zero Hertz is provided entirely by the
capacitance. As the frequency of the signal is increased, the
impedance of the capacitor is reduced.
Similarly, as the speed of a particle increases, the effects of the
static electric field are decreased.
Similarly, we may compare the impedance of the inductor to the
magnetic field of a particle in relative motion.
At zero Hertz, there is no impedance offered by the inductor and a
"particle" at zero relative speed has no magnetic field. As the
frequency of the applied signal to the circuit is increased, the
impedance provided by the inductor is increased.
As the speed of the particle increases, the effects of the magnetic
field are increased.
At frequencies less than the resonant frequency, the impedance of
the circuit is due primaily to the capacitor.
At speeds less than that of light, the electric field is dominant
and the magnetic field is a function of the electric charge.
At frequencies greater than the resonant frequency, the impedance of
the circuit is due primarily to the inductor. We may then assume
that, by analogy, at speeds greater than the speed of light, the
magnetic field will dominate and will appear to be as constant as
the electric field at sub-light speeds.
At these speeds, it may appear that the electric field is a function
of the magnetic field.
To repeat for clarity:
The impedance offered by the capacitor is analogous to the
electric field of a charged particle and the impedance
offered by the inductor is analogous to the magnetic field
of a charged particle in motion.
NON-STEADY-STATE CONDITIONS
Let us assume a series L-C circuit, as described above, with no
Page 7
applied signal. The inductor does not have an initial magnetic
field nor does the capacitor have an initial electric field.
Now let us apply a signal of zero Hertz and the circuit will
oscillate at its resonant frequency.
In a real circuit, resistances cause the oscillation to dampen. In
an ideal circuit, the oscillation does not die out and continues
forever.
If we assume the creation of a particle, we would see that this
particle causes a disturbance which propagates as an electromagnetic
wave.
Now we change the frequency of the applied signal. Again the
circuit will respond with an oscillation at it's resonant frequency.
Similarly, if we accelerate a charged particle, an electromagnetic
wave is generated. Indeed, any change in the frequency of the
applied signal to a series L-C circuit will generate transient
oscillations just as acceleration of a charged particle will
generate electromagnetic waves.
GRAVITY
The electric and magnetic fields of a particle have been associated
with the impedances offered by the capacitor and inductor of an
analogous series L-C circuit.
The hypothesis proposes that the mass of a particle is due to the
collapse of the magnetic field of the particle.
Mass is not recognized directly but a gravitational field is. A
gravitational field is probably not a different form of a magnetic
field.
The gravitational field is, most likely, a result of the collapsed
magnetic field.
It is possible that the collapsed magnetic field pulls or twists the
fabric of space-time in such a way as to form what we call a
gravitational field.
As the speed of the charged particle increases, the magnetic field
expands and decreases its pull or twist which causes a decrease in
the gravitational field.
At speeds greater than light, the hypothesis predicts that the
effects of the electric and magnetic fields will be reversed.
At these speeds, it is likely that the magnetic fields will become
polar and the electric fields will become circular, that is, a
magnetic monopole will result.
At speeds much greater than that of light, the electric field may be
expected to collapse.
This collapsed electric field may also pull or twist the fabric of
space-time and form a type of field not now known.
Page 8
Vangard Notes
Our researches into the nature of gravity tend to support this
paper. It appears that ANY FORM OF ENERGY (i.e., acoustic,
electric, magnetic, motional (scalar) fields, etc...) can be
properly driven to alter the energy/mass relationship to
generate free energy, anti-gravity, matter transport or matter
integration - disintegration - transport.
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Vangard Sciences/KeelyNet
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