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*ON A TESTABLE UNIFICATION OF ELECTROMAGNETICS, GENERAL RELATIVITY,
AND QUANTUM MECHANICS*
T.E. Bearden
Association of Distinguished American Scientists
2311 Big Cove Road
Huntsville, Alabama 35801
Walter Rosenthal
4876 Bethany Lane
Santa Maria, California 93455
Copyright (c) 1991 by T.E. Bearden & W. Rosenthal
All Rights Reserved.
*ABSTRACT*
Unrecognized for what it was, in 1903-1904 E.T. Whittaker (W)
published a fundamental, engineerable theory of electrogravitation
(EG) in two profound papers. The first (W-1903) demonstrated a hidden
bidirectional EM wave structure in the scalar potential of vacuum, and
showed how to produce a standing scalar EM potential wave -- the same
wave discovered experimentally four years earlier by Nikola Tesla.
W-1903 is a hidden variable theory that shows how to deterministically
curve the local and/or distant space-time using EM. W-1904 shows that
all force field EM can be replaced by interferometry of two scalar
potentials, anticipating the Aharonov-Bohm effect by 55 years and
extending it to the engineerable macroscopic world. W-1903 shows how
to turn EM into G-potential, curve local and/or distant space-time,
and directly engineer the virtual particle flux of vacuum. W-1904
shows how to turn G-potential and curvature of space-time back into
force-field EM, even at a distance. The papers implement Sakharov's
1968 statement that gravitation is not a fundamental field of nature,
but a conglomerate of other fields. Separately applied to
electromagnetics (EM), quantum mechanics (QM), and general relativity
(GR), an extended superset of each results. The three supersets are
Whittaker-unified, so that a testable, engineerable, unified field
theory is generated. EM, QM, and GR each contained a fundamental
error that blocked unification, and these three errors are explained.
The Schroedinger potential can also be structured and altered,
indicating the direct engineering of physical quantum change.
Recently Ignatovich has pointed out this hidden bidirectional EM wave
structure in the Schroedinger potential, without referencing
Whittaker's 1903 discovery of the basic effect. The potential for
applying the new approach to explain the nature of mind and thought,
and providing a laboratory-testable theory for them, is briefly noted
and indicative major references cited. Some of the possible
implications for physics and biology are pointed out.
*ELECTROMAGNETICS HAS FOUNDATIONS DIFFICULTIES*
There exists today a small but growing number of scientists who have
become aware that the presently accepted electromagnetic theory is
seriously flawed. Shortcomings in the theory are readily cited.
For example, in railgun experiments the Lorentz force law has been
falsified. It was always an approximation, and does not adequately
approximate at high energies.[1]
Also completely contrary to orthodox EM theory, the EM force fields
are not primary agents at all, but are effects produced in and on the
physical system by the potentials. As an example, we cite the
Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect, which proves that, even in the total
absence of the force fields, the potentials remain and can interfere
at a distance to produce real effects in charged particle systems.[2]
The AB effect has been proven to the satisfaction of all but the most
diehard skeptics.[3] However, its fundamental impact on the basic
notions underlying classical EM theory continues to be ignored by all
but a handful of scientists.
These EM shortcomings were not present in the original_quaternion_ EM
theory by James Clerk Maxwell.[4] Indeed, the original Maxwell theory
contains many things that were mistakenly eliminated from the
abbreviated vector theory formulated primarily by Heaviside and Gibbs,
and to a lesser extent by Hertz.[5] Further, these things that do not
exist in conventional EM theory, but that exist in Maxwell's actual
quaternion theory, can be used in specially designed equipment, and
the operation of that equipment will be inexplicable by present-day
electromagnetic theory. AB-effect laboratory apparatuses are in fact
rigorous demonstrations of such a statement.
*Scalar Electromagnetics*
This can be even further explained and developed experimentally
according to Whittaker's fundamental approach.[6] In a modern sense,
in 1903/1904 Whittaker theoretically showed how to engineer the scalar
potential with a highly dynamic, hidden, bidirectional EM wave
structure, to build hidden EM _vacuum engines_ that are still
unsuspected in modern physics today. Much of the content of the
fundamental 1959 Aharonov/Bohm paper was anticipated in a different
manner -- and dramatically extended in an engineerable, testable
fashion -- by Whittaker's two papers. At the time, however, the
*Figure 1.* A Standing Scalar EM Potential Whittaker Wave.
vector interpretation of Maxwell's EM theory was just slowly beginning
to spread as the adopted model. Also, special and general relativity
and quantum mechanics had not yet been born. Accordingly, considering
the scientific understanding of the day, it was not possible for any
scientist--even Whittaker himself -- to perceive the potential future
impact these fundamental papers could have on sciences and
technologies not yet even born. Unfortunately, in later years
Whittaker apparently never realized that his two earlier papers had
such application to the modern unification problem. Indeed, up to the
time of Whittaker's death, very few scientists even concerned
themselves with the notion of unified fields.
*Turning EM Energy Into G-Potential Energy*
In his 1903 paper Whittaker showed that a standing scalar potential
wave can be decomposed into a special set of bidirectional EM waves
that convolute into a standing scalar potential wave, as shown in
Figure 1. As a corollary, a set of bidirectional EM waves -- stress
waves -- can be constructed to form a standing scalar potential wave
in space, as shown in Figure 2. Since all potentials represent
*Figure 2.* Whittaker's Bidirectional EM Plane Wave Structure.
trapped energy density of vacuum, they are gravitational in nature.[7]
Because it represents a "standing wave" whose magnitude represents the
variation in the local energy density of the vacuum, the Whittaker
scalar potential wave represents a standing wave of variation in the
_local curvature_ of vacuum, sharply in contradiction to the
assumptions of present electromagnetics and general relativity.[8] It
also represents a standing wave of the variation of the local gauge.
*Turning G-Potential Back to EM*
The very next year, Whittaker's second paper (cited above) showed how
to turn such G-potential wave energy back into EM energy, even at a
distance, by scalar potential interferometry, anticipating and greatly
expanding the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Indeed, Whittaker's second paper
shows that the entire present force-field electromagnetics can be
directly replaced with scalar potential interferometry. In other
words, scalar EM includes and extends the present restricted vector
subset of Maxwell's original theory.
*Engineering the Nucleus Directly*
Whittaker's work is even more striking when one realizes that
potentials are actually part of the vacuum itself. They pervade
through the electron shells of an atom, directly reaching the nucleus
and centering on it. Gross external changes (gradients; force fields)
of the potentials interact primarily with the electron shells of the
atom. The stabilized (persistent, gradient-free) potential's primary
interaction is with the atomic nucleus. Specifically, the primary
interaction between the infolded, internalized EM bidirectional wave
structure of a Whittaker potential is with the atomic nuclei, rather
than with the atom's electron shells, because in the standing
Whittaker potential wave the local magnitude of the external potential
is not changing. Whittaker has in fact shown that there exists an
unsuspected, hidden, _internal_ EM energy exchange channel between
nuclei -- a channel where EM energy flows bidirectionally, undetected
by most modern detectors. Unlimited types of Whittaker-structures can
be produced in the laboratory in the form of deterministically
structured potentials; for the first time, the direct engineering,
structuring, and manipulation of the nuclear potentials themselves,
even with miniscule EM power, is possible. This is a new capability
of exceptional importance and application. The Whittaker structuring
in effect allows one to produce a "virtual grid" to place in the
violent virtual particle flux (VPF) exchange of the local vacuum with
the nucleus. By simply holding the grid signal constant, gradually
the nuclear potential itself will substructure (_activate_) with the
same structure. When the activating ("charging") potential is
removed, the activation of the nucleus will gradually "decay" back to
the normal structure. Just as one example, the binding energy of an
atomic nucleus is accessible and -- theoretically -- engineerable.
*Whittaker Structuring Confirmed*
Recently Ignatovich has pointed out the hidden bidirectional EM wave
structure in the Schroedinger potential, without referencing
Whittaker's 1903 discovery of the basic effect.[9] Also, recently
modern researchers, working on acoustic missiles and with the scalar
acoustic wave equation, have "rediscovered" Whittaker's 1903 infolded
bidirectional planar waves inside the scalar wave.[10] They do not
appear to have yet recognized its relevance to their work in
electromagnetic missiles.[11]
*STOCHASTIC ELECTRODYNAMICS*
Whittaker's paper takes on a significant new meaning, however, in
light of Sakharov's 1968 hypothesis that gravitation is not a primary
field, but is produced as a result of interactions of other fields.
Together with Whittaker's structured potential, this implies that the
_gravitational_ aspects of the nucleus can also be electromagnetically
engineered. As a result of Sakharov's hypothesis, explosive activity
in stochastic electrodynamics (SED) has shown that many fundamental
parts of physics are "already unified" in terms of electromagnetics
and gravitation. Evidence continues to accumulate that the
gravitational field may not be a primary field of nature, but a
secondary or residual effect associated with other non-gravitational
fields.[12] Actually, general relativity has always focused on energy
as the thing which really has gravitation. Trapped energy, such as
mass, is particularly important. But since mass is essentially
trapped EM energy, relativity has essentially assumed Sakharov's
hypothesis anyway, without stating it so explicitly. Further, GR
considers "the" G-potential as a conglomerate of other things.[13] It
follows that the gradient of that conglomerate yields a force field
which is also a conglomerate.
*G-Potential is Electromagnetic*
Starting from Sakharov's postulate, to the first order gravitation
should be due to some aspect of the EM field, since EM is the
strongest and most universal force normally encountered in the
macroscopic world experimentally, and since mass is already "trapped
EM energy." Thus Sakharov focused attention upon the zero-point EM
energy fluctuations (ZPF) of vacuum. Sakharov conjectured that the
Lagrange function of the G-field is generated by vacuum polarization,
due to fermions.[14] Akama et al examined the potential generation of
gravity as a collective excitation of fermion-antifermion pairs.[15]
Haxlacher and Mottolo proved that space-time (ST) curvature can arise
from the quantum fluctuations of pure gauge fields.[16] Zee showed
that gravity is generated as a symmetry-breaking effect in quantum
field theory in which a dynamical scale-invariance breaking is
postulated to take place at energies near the Planck mass.[17] Amati,
Veneziano and Yoshimoto showed that in pre-geometric models the
Einstein action and metric may be generated from quantum fluctuations
of matter fields.[18] A review of the exploding field was given by
Adler, with particular emphasis on the case of renormalizable field
theories with dynamical scale-invariance breaking, in which the
induced gravitational effective action is finite and calculable.[19]
*Puthoff's Important Contribution*
Recently Puthoff has applied the Sakharov viewpoint to significantly
advance the stochastic electrodynamics field. He has successfully
explained why the atom's orbital electrons do not decay into the
nucleus, even though by conventional EM theory each electron must
constantly radiate EM energy, since it is constantly accelerated.[20]
He has also shown that gravitation can indeed be regarded as an
induced effect associated with zero-point EM fluctuations of the
vacuum.[21] He has also shown a feedback-derivation of the source of
the vacuum EM zero-point energy fluctuations from quantum fluctuation
motion of particles driven by the ZPE.[22] Quantum fluctuation motion
of particles and vacuum ZPE fluctuations are connected by a causal,
self-regenerating cosmological feedback cycle.
*Some Conclusions*
In light of Whittaker's EM structuring of the potential, there are
several important conclusions to be taken from the important SED work
since Sakharov's seminal suggestion, as follows: (1) In stochastic
electrodynamics, very solid theoretical foundation exists for
electrogravitation. (2) The vacuum EM ZPF may be regarded as causally
connected to quantum mechanical particle jitter (Zitterbewegung
motion) and vice versa, though the feedback mechanism into the virtual
particle flux of vacuum is normally hidden by the large-scale
integration represented by any macroscopic object or process. (3) The
SED theoretical demonstration of this hidden mechanism adds new
emphasis on the rather neglected hidden variable theories. (4) In
some fashion, statistical quantum change is chaotic rather than
random, for it has already been shown by Puthoff that the vacuum ZPF
fluctuations driving everything are totally deterministic. It follows
that, theoretically, hidden Whittaker order already exists in quantum
change, and quantum change must be already chaotic and at least
partially deterministic. (5) It follows that there may well exist
engineerable mechanisms that can affect or manipulate quantum change.
*Whittaker Potentials Are Engineerable*
What Whittaker has described in his 1903 paper is a standing
electrogravitational wave -- a standing wave in the local curvature of
space-time itself -- that can readily be constructed experimentally.
This Whittaker standing potential wave is precisely the new form of
standing EM wave that Nikola Tesla had experimentally discovered being
radiated from a thunderstorm four years earlier, on the night of July
3-4, 1899, and which he recorded in his Colorado Springs Notebook on
the morning of July 4, 1899.[23] Further, Whittaker's paper directly
implies that the hidden variable determinism shown by Puthoff to be
driving the zero-point EM fluctuations can also be engineered, both
locally and at a distance.
In short, Whittaker's 1903 paper shows how to turn electromagnetics
into gravitational potential. Unknowingly, Whittaker had already
shown the correct engineering way to unify EM and G fields, and
already falsified one of Einstein's later primary GR assumptions --
that the local space-time is never curved -- in a testable manner, a
decade before Einstein published his theory of general relativity.
In the very next year, 1904, Whittaker's second paper (orally
presented in 1903) was published.[24] In this little-noticed paper
Whittaker shows that all classical force field electromagnetics can be
replaced by scalar EM potentials and their interferometry.
Specifically, any EM force field can be replaced by two scalar
potential fields and scalar interferometry. The combination of this
paper and the 1903 _Mathematische Annalen_ paper not only includes the
Aharonov-Bohm effect, but specifies a testable method for producing a
macroscopic and controlled Aharanov-Bohm effect, even at large
distances.[25]
*PRESENT ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY IS INCOMPLETE*
As stated above, Maxwell's original EM theory was written in
quaternions, which are an extension to the complex number theory and
an independent system of mathematics. In short, since the quaternion
is a hypernumber, Maxwell's theory was a hyperspatial theory -- not
just the limited three-dimensional subset that was extracted and
expressed by Heaviside and Gibbs in terms of an abbreviated,
incomplete vector mathematics.[26]
*Heaviside and Gibbs Curtailed Maxwell's Theory*
Oliver Heaviside was a brilliant, self-taught genius who never
formally attained a university degree, and whose papers were printed
in technical magazines rather than scientific journals. When Maxwell
published his _Treatise_ in 1873, Heaviside was just teaching himself
differential equations. Heaviside's imagination was completely seized
by Maxwell's book, and Maxwell forever became his hero. However, he
had great difficulty with quaternions and could not completely
tolerate them.
*Electrogravitation Was Discarded*
A puzzled Heaviside abhorred the quaternion, since it linked together
a scalar component and a vector component -- or "apples and oranges,"
in his view. He excised the scalar component of the quaternion and
excluded the hyperspatial characteristics of its directional
components -- producing his much more limited vectors. To unite
magnetics and electromagnetics, the simplest complex aspect of the
quaternion had to be restored by resorting to ordinary imaginary
numbers. These machinations to the quaternion theory, however,
discarded its unified field theory aspects. In short, Heaviside
produced a very practical, highly restricted subset that was far
easier to engineer, but he threw out electrogravitation in the
process.
*Hatred of the Potential*
Heaviside hated the potential because he did not truly understand it.
He stated that it was "...mystical and should be murdered from the
theory." He conditioned generations of physicists and engineers to
erroneously believe that the potential was just a mathematical
convenience, and had no actual physical realization. Indeed, most
electrical physicists and electrical engineers are still of that
erroneous persuasion today, even though the Aharonov-Bohm work has
long-since falsified such a position, both theoretically and
experimentally.
*The Quaternion Theory Was Already a Unified EM/G Theory*
The present author has previously pointed out that Maxwell's
quaternion theory was in fact a unified theory of electromagnetics and
gravitation, and that the scalar component of the quaternion was the
electrogravitational part.[27] That part was discarded by Heaviside
and Gibbs, and so electrogravitation no longer appears in the
electromagnetics that resulted from Heaviside's and Gibbs' surgery on
Maxwell's quaternion theory. Strong experimental evidence for the EG
nature of Whittaker's scalar EM theory is planned for presentation at
this conference.[28]
*ELECTROGRAVITATION ALSO EXCLUDED FROM GENERAL RELATIVITY*
The electrogravitational effect was also erroneously excluded from
Einsteinian general relativity (GR). Einstein unwittingly narrowed
his general relativity to only a subset of an unrestricted general
relativity of curved space-time, by excluding local curvature. This
GR error was an indirect result of the fundamental Heaviside/Gibbs
omission error in classical electromagnetics.
*Einstein's Gedankenexperiment*
Unfortunately, Einstein's view of electromagnetics approximated the
classical Heaviside/Gibbs view. In classical EM theory, the
electrical potentials -- which actually were _electrogravitational_
potentials -- were already ignored as having no physical significance,
and EM was considered mutually exclusive to G. Therefore, Einstein
only considered the weak gravitational force due to the attraction of
mass, in developing his general relativity theory of curved space-
time. The G-force is far weaker than the E-force; for two electrons,
for example, the attractive G-force between them is on the order of
only 1.0E-42 times as strong as their electrical E-force repulsion.
Thus the G-force is incredibly smaller than the EM force. If only the
weak G-force is considered for curving space-time, then there will
never be an observable curvature except in the immediate vicinity of a
very large mass, such as on the surface of the sun or near a star.
Considering the weak G-force as the agent for curvature, Einstein
reasoned that the laboratory and the observer/scientist/instrument
would never be on the surface of the sun or near a star. Therefore,
the local space-time -- where the lab and the scientist/observer and
his instruments are -- would never be observably curved. The local
space-time of the observer would always be flat.
Unfortunately Einstein then overgeneralized his thought examination,
and he stated one of his fundamental postulates of general relativity
as "The local space-time is always flat." This is an erroneous
overstatement. The postulate should be more correctly stated as
follows: "The local space-time is always flat, whenever only the weak
gravitational force is used for the agent of curvature, and the
observer is not near a large collection of mass, such as a star."
*Corollary to the Corrected Postulate*
The two statements of the postulate differ fundamentally. Einstein's
overstatement of the postulate does not allow the far stronger EM
force to be used as an agent for local curvature. In effect, his own
postulate excluded electromagnetics from curvature unity with
gravitation, in his general relativity theory.[29] On the other hand,
the corrected statement of the postulate admits the following
corollary: "When a very strong force such as the electromagnetic force
is used for the agent of curvature, the local space-time may be
curved, even though the observer is not near a large collection of
mass, such as a star."[30]
Regrettably, many of Einstein's modern followers have raised
Einstein's theory to a dogma, and have vigorously enforced his
overstatement of the locally flat space-time.[31] In so doing,
general relativity has been erroneously reduced to a theory that is
basically not experimental: A priori, if the local space-time is flat,
then there is no local experiment or local apparatus that involves or
yields a curved space-time where the laboratory, the instruments, and
the observer are located. In this fashion the universities have
continued to perpetuate the exclusion of electrogravitation and its
direct space-time curvature engineering implications.
*THE CURTAILMENT OF QUANTUM MECHANICS*
Today, quantum mechanics is our most successful physics theory. Its
predictions -- even the eery prediction of action at a distance --
have been proven time and time again. However, quantum mechanics
theory is known to have a formidable foundations difficulty: Try as
they will, quantum physicists cannot find _chaos_ in the theory. The
theory is known to be wrong unless it possesses chaos (hidden order
inside its statistics), yet the best efforts of quantum physicists
have failed to find it.[32]
*Chaos Excluded By Inherent Assumption*
Any well-founded mathematical discipline is totally implied by its
foundations postulates, and that is true of quantum mechanics. If the
best efforts of the ablest physicists of the day cannot find chaos in
the present QM, then one may suspect that the present QM does not
_contain_ chaos (hidden order), but already _excludes_ it in some
fashion. If that is true, then some present QM postulate -- either
explicit or implicit -- of QM must be the culprit. If so, the "real"
QM needed is a superset that has at least two subsets: one (the
missing) subset includes chaos, while the present subset excludes
chaos. So we may suspect that one or more of the postulates of the
present QM theory is in error or overly restrictive, and must be
changed to allow the missing chaotic subset.
*Gibbs Statistics Excludes Hidden Order*
Indeed, we may resolve this formidable QM problem quite simply by
examining the statistics utilized by quantum mechanics. When QM was
being formulated, scientists simply appropriated and included the
thermodynamic statistics of Willard Gibbs (the same Gibbs who,
together with Heaviside, was responsible for the highly restricted
vector subset of Maxwell's theory of electromagnetics). Gibbs'
thermodynamics statistics was totally based on the notion of the
random variable. That is, the change (value assumed by the variable
in a specific instance) is not only totally statistical, it is also
totally _random_. Quantum physicists assumed a postulate of QM as
follows: "Quantum change is totally statistical." However, because of
the Gibbs statistics, in application they interpreted that postulate
in a much stronger fashion, as if it had been stated thusly: "Quantum
change is totally statistical and random." The actual postulate and
the presently applied interpretation of it are in fact two quite
different statements, and the interpretation is far more restrictive
than actually implied by the postulate itself.
*The Random Interpretation Is False*
Further, the strong interpretation can readily be falsified. As an
example, the macroscopic universe is simply a large integration
(collection) of quantum changes. If these component quanta occur
totally randomly, then no integration of them would yield the ordered,
macroscopic world we all live in, because integrated randomness is
still random. Therefore, since the ordered macroworld exists, the
present QM strong interpretation of its own statistical quantum change
postulate is invalid.
In addition, if quantum change were totally random, then there would
never be any possibility, a priori, of engineering it
deterministically. Presently, almost all quantum physicists believe
that quantum change cannot be engineered, on first principles. On the
other hand, if hidden order is admitted, there is at least the
possibility of directly engineering physical quantum change itself.
*Hidden Variables*
Interestingly, the renowned physicist David Bohm has shown that a
hidden variable theory of quantum mechanics can actually be
constructed, whereby one could potentially engineer physical
change.[33] It is well-known that experimental physics does not in
any manner refute hidden variable theories. Because of the historical
attachment of physics to the theory of the random variable, such
contrary notions as chaos (hidden order) and hidden variables have
simply been greeted with suspicion and shuffled aside. The usual
objection is Occam's razor; a theory must predict something different,
or it is said to be unwarranted.[34] But based on this same form of
Occam's overworked razor, the Whittaker hidden variable approach
certainly predicts many profoundly different engineerable effects and
capabilities that mandate its full examination.
*Correction of the Statistical Postulate*
A much better, valid interpretation of the quantum change postulate is
as follows: "Quantum change is statistical, and may contain hidden
order."
The two interpretations differ sharply. In the new and less
restrictive reinterpretation, one has three cases or subsets of QM as
follows: (1) the subset where quantum change contains partial order,
hence is already chaotic, (2) the subset where the internal order has
vanished, leaving the statistics as Gibbs' random variable statistics,
and exhibiting the present quantum mechanics without chaos, and (3)
the subset where the statistics is totally deterministic, but
information on the variables is lost.
*Remarks On the New Interpretation*
The new interpretation is consistent with Bohm's hidden variable
theory, and it is also consistent with the Schroedinger equation,
which in the QM model already propagates the QM states forward in time
with absolute determinism. It is even possible, for example, to
deterministically produce a Bohm/de Broglie _quantum potential_,
according to a self-targeting repetitive phase conjugation mechanism
advanced by this author.[35] The new interpretation is not consistent
with the Copenhagen interpretation, which only applies to the present
QM subset. This can be seen as follows: If quantum change is
engineerable by Whittaker hidden variables, then the inner contents of
the engineered quantum change are known. This knowledge applies to
the subset where QM change is engineered (the new subset), but not to
the subset where all variables are random variables and hence not
subject to engineering. Therefore the Copenhagen interpretation
applies to the random quantum change subset, but not to chaotic
(partially ordered) quantum change subset.
*The New Interpretation Is Testable*
Happily, the reinterpretation of the postulate now allows a sufficient
collection of already-chaotic quantum changes to produce the
well-ordered, macroscopic universe we all live in. Also, the new
interpretation is testable, and it can be falsified or verified in the
laboratory.
*THE END RESULT OF ABBREVIATING MAXWELL'S THEORY*
*Effect On EM*
In discarding the scalar component of the quaternion, Heaviside and
Gibbs unwittingly discarded the unified EM/G portion of Maxwell's
theory that arises when the translational/directional components of
two interacting quaternions reduce to zero, but the scalar resultant
remains and infolds a deterministic, dynamic structure that is a
function of oppositive directional/translational components. In the
infolding of EM energy inside a scalar potential, a structured scalar
potential results, almost precisely as later shown by Whittaker but
unnoticed by the scientific community. The simple vector equations
produced by Heaviside and Gibbs captured only that subset of Maxwell's
theory where EM and gravitation are mutually exclusive. In that
subset, electromagnetic circuits and equipment will not ever, and
cannot ever, produce gravitational or inertial effects in materials
and equipments. Not a single one of those Heaviside/Gibbs equations
ever appeared in a paper or book by James Clerk Maxwell, even though
the severely restricted Heaviside/Gibbs interpretation is universally
and erroneously taught in all Western universities as Maxwell's
theory.
*Effect On GR*
As a result of this artificial restriction of Maxwell's theory,
Einstein also inadvertently restricted his theory of general
relativity, forever preventing the unification of electromagnetics and
relativity. He also essentially prevented the present restricted
general relativity from ever becoming an experimental, engineerable
science on the laboratory bench, since a hidden internalized
electromagnetics causing a deterministically structured local
space-time curvature was excluded.
*Effect On QM*
Quantum mechanics used only the Heaviside/Gibbs externalized
electromagnetics and completely missed Maxwell's internalized and
ordered electromagnetics enfolded inside a structured scalar
potential. Accordingly, QM maintained its Gibbs statistics of quantum
change, which is non-chaotic a priori. Quantum physicists by and
largely excluded Bohm's hidden variable theory, which conceivably
could have offered the potential of engineering quantum change --
engineering physical reality itself.
*In Summary*
Each of the three major scientific disciplines missed and excluded a
subset of its disciplinary area, because it did not have the scalar
component of the quaternion to incorporate. Further, all of them
completely missed the significance of the Whittaker approach, which
already shows how to apply and engineer the very subsets they had
excluded.
What now exist in these areas are three inconsistent disciplines.
Each of them unwittingly excluded a vital part of its discipline,
which was the unified field part. Ironically, then, present
physicists continue to exert great effort to find the missing key to
unification of the three disciplines, but find it hopeless, because
these special subsets are already contradictory to one another, as is
quite well-known to foundations physicists.
*CONCLUSIONS*
Obviously, if one wishes to unify physics, one must add back the
unintentionally excluded, unifying subsets to each discipline.
*Figure 3.* Whittaker Unification of EM, GR, and QM.
Interestingly, all three needed subsets turn out to be one and the
same, as shown in Figure 3. So application of Whittaker's work to
each one of the three disciplines produces the necessary superset of
each, and these three supersets are unified in and on the common added
Whittaker subset.
Also, as shown in the figure, one gets an added and unexpected bonus
of great value: Mind, thought, and life occupy time, and if time is
treated as a real dimension, then these are real also. Since
fundamental units in which physics is modeled are arbitrary, one can
even model physics in terms of one unit, time. In that case,
everything is a time structure. Since even physical reality can be
viewed in this fashion, it is not unreasonable to view mind, thought,
and life as real; they do after all occupy time. However, since they
do not emerge in the normal external electromagnetics, they must lie
within the hidden, internal electromagnetics (since the photon carries
both time and energy, being a piece of action). Without further
development, we state that the Whittaker hidden variable EM approach,
in allowing the complete engineering of the internal electromagnetics,
allows the complete engineering of mind, thought, and life. Living
systems have utilized the internal EM Whittaker channel (in and
through atomic nuclear potentials and area quantum potentials) since
the beginning.[36]
Finally, the Whittaker unification linkage of the three disciplines is
testable. It is engineerable. It works.
*NOTES AND REFERENCES*
[1] P. Graneau, _Ampere-Neumann Electrodynamics of Metals_, Nonantum,
Massachusetts, Hadronic Press, 1985. See also P. Graneau and P.N.
Graneau, "Electrodynamic Explosions in Liquids," _Appl. Phys. Lett._,
Vol. 46, 1985, p. 468; R. Azevedo, P. Graneau, P.N. Graneau, and C.
Millet, "Powerful Water Plasma Explosions," _Phys. Lett._ Vol. 117,
1986, p. 101.
[2] See Y. Aharonov and D. Bohm, "Significance of Electromagnetic
Potentials in the Quantum Theory," _Phys. Rev._ Second Series, 115(3),
Aug. 1, 1959, p. 458-491. This paper pointed out the primacy of the
potentials. Instead of being causative agents, the force fields are
actually _effects_ generated in and of charged particle systems from
the potentials. This is in complete violation of both classical
electromagnetics and classical dynamics, but it is absolutely required
by quantum mechanics. For an extensive discussion of the Aharonov-
Bohm effect and an extensive list of references, see S. Olariu and I.
Iovitzu Popescu, "The Quantum Effects of Electromagnetic Fluxes,"
_Rev. Mod. Phys._ 57(2), Apr. 1985.
[3] See Bertram Schwarzschild, "Currents in normal-metal rings
exhibit Aharonov-Bohm Effect," _Physics Today_, 39(1), Jan. 1986, p.
17-20 for confirmation.
[4] James Clerk Maxwell, _A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism_,
Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1873. The third edition is published
by Dover, 1954.
[5] Maxwell's true theory of electromagnetics is contained in some
200-odd quaternion equations, and is far more complex than the gross
vector simplification developed by Heaviside and Gibbs after Maxwell's
death. For a cogent argument about what might have been discovered
much earlier in physics if quaternions had not been cast aside, see
James D. Edmonds, Jr., "Quaternion Quantum Theory: New Physics or
Number Mysticism?", _Am. J. Phys._, 42(3), Mar. 1974, p. 220-223.
Just how much more powerful was Maxwell's quaternionic expression of
EM theory than was Heaviside's (i.e., the modern) vector
interpretation, was succinctly expressed by Josephs as follows:
"Hamilton's algebra of quaternions, unlike Heaviside's algebra of
vectors, is not a mere abbreviated mode of expressing Cartesian
analysis, but is an independent branch of mathematics with its own
rules of operation and its own special theorems. A quaternion is, in
fact, a generalized or hypercomplex number..." (H.J. Josephs, "The
Heaviside Papers Found at Paignton in 1957," _Electromagnetic Theory
by Oliver Heaviside, Including an account of Heaviside's unpublished
notes for a fourth volume, and with a foreword by Sir Edmund
Whittaker_, Vol. III, Third Edition, Chelsea Publishing Co., New York,
1971, p. 660.)
[6] See E.T. Whittaker, "On the Partial Differential Equations of
Mathematical Physics," _Math. Ann._, Vol. 57, 1903, p. 333-355; "On an
Expression of the Electromagnetic Field Due to Electrons by Means of
Two Scalar Potential Functions," _Proc. Lond. Math. Soc._, Series 2,
Vol.1, 1904, p. 367-372.
[7] In the modern view, it is trapped energy that is gravitational,
mass being viewed as simply such trapped energy. We point out that
Einstein's formula E = mc^2 actually is an expression for mass in
terms of its trapped EM energy. Thus we extend the modern view by
stating that, to first order, Newtonian gravitational attraction is
due to the attraction of spatially entrapped electromagnetic energy.
Since the electromagnetic scalar potentials represent just such
spatially entrapped EM energy, then they hold a special significance
gravitationally.
[8] This assertion can be tested. At the nodal points of the
standing potential wave, the rate of flow of time is normal. At
nonzero points along the wave, however, the local rate of flow of
local time varies from normal. After a proper-time interval for the
observer at the nodal point, normal clocks and watches at different
non-nodal points along the wave will appreciably vary in their time
reading. Initially synchronized clocks will thus be found to
disagree, if placed in different positions in the Whittaker wave and
allowed to remain for a test period. In the past, various inventors
have anecdotally demonstrated this effect. As an example, see David
Jones, _Vancouver Sun Times_, Dec. 17, 1977, p. 17.
[9] V.K. Ignatovich, "The Remarkable Capabilities of Recursive
Relations," _Am. J. Phys._, 57(10), Oct. 1989, p. 873-878.
[10] Richard W. Ziolkowski, "Localized transmission of wave energy,"
_Proc. SPIE, Vol. 1061, Microwave and Particle Beam Sources and
Directed Energy Concepts_, Jan. 1989, p. 396-397.
[11] An acoustic missile is essentially a slug of acoustic energy
that holds together as it travels, striking and damaging or destroying
a target. An electromagnetic missile is a slug of EM energy that
holds together as it travels to a target and strikes it.
[12] A.D. Sakharov, "Vacuum Quantum Fluctuations in Curved Space and
the Theory of Gravitation," _Sov. Phys. Dokl._, Vol. 12, 1968, p.
1040. See also the related discussion in Misner, Thorne and Wheeler,
_Gravitation_, 1973, p. 426.
[13] Note that this assigns an internal structure to a gravitational
potential.
[14] A.D. Sakharov, _Theor. Math. Phys._, Vol. 23, 1975, p. 435.
[15] K. Akama et al, _Prog. Theor. Phys._, Vol. 60, 1978, p. 868.
[16] B. Hasslacher and E. Mottolo, _Phys. Lett._, Vol. 95B, 1980, p.
237.
[17] A. Zee, _Phys. Rev. Lett._, Vol. 42, 1979, p. 417.
[18] D. Amati and G. Veneziano, _Phys. Lett._, Vol. 105B, 1981, p.
358; S. Yoshimoto, _Prog. Theor. Phys._, Vol. 78, 1987, p. 435.
[19] S. Adler, _Rev. Mod. Phys._, Vol. 54, 1982, p. 729.
[20] H.E. Puthoff, "Ground State of Hydrogen as a Zero-Point-
Fluctuation-Determined State," _Phys. Rev. D_, 35(10), May 15, 1987,
p. 3266-3269.
[21] H.E. Puthoff, "Gravity as a Zero-Point-Fluctuation Force,"
_Phys. Rev. A._, 39(5), Mar. 1, 1989, p. 2333-2342. See also H.E.
Puthoff, "Source of Vacuum electromagnetic Zero-Point Energy," _Phys.
Rev. A._, 40(9), Nov. 1, 1989, p. 4857-4862. Changing the vacuum
potential constitutes a fluctuation directly in and of the zero-point
energy of vacuum, and hence, by Puthoff's mechanism, it does indeed
induce a gravitational effect. At the level of the vacuum virtual
particle flux exchange with the charged nucleus, producing an
electromagnetic change also produces a gravitational change, and
vice-versa.
[22] Puthoff, _Phys. Rev. D._, 35(10), May 15, 1987, p. 3266-3269.
[23] Nikola Tesla, _Colorado Springs Notes 1899-1900_, Nolit,
Belgrade, Yugoslavia, 1978, p. 61-62.
[24] E.T. Whittaker, "On an Expression of the Electromagnetic Field
Due to Electrons by Means of Two Scalar Potential Functions," _Proc.
Lond. Math. Soc._, Series 2, Vol. 1, 1904, p. 367-372.
[25] The potential for weaponization of the Whittaker work should be
obvious.
[26] Toward the end of his life Heaviside lived as a recluse in a
small garret apartment, and may have returned again to his struggle
with quaternions. In the 1950's handwritten notes of a theory of
gravitation, written in quaternion mathematics, were found beneath the
floor boards of his tiny study.
[27] T.E. Bearden, "Maxwell's Original Quaternion Theory Was a
Unified Field Theory of Electromagnetics and Electrogravitation,"
_Proceedings, International Tesla Society Symposium_, Colorado
Springs, Colorado, July 1988. See also T.E. Bearden, "Maxwell's Lost
Unified Field Theory of Electromagnetics and Gravitation,"
_Proceedings, PACE Third International New Energy Technology
Symposium_, June 25-28, 1988 at Maison du Citoyen, Hull (Ottawa),
Canada, 1988.
[28] See Floyd Sweet and T.E. Bearden, "Utilizing Scalar
Electromagnetics to Tap Vacuum Energy," _Proceedings_, this
conference.
[29] Ironically, Einstein then spent the remainder of his life,
desperately trying to unify electromagnetics and gravitation in his
theory of general relativity, never realizing that his own
overstatement of his "flat local space-time" postulate precluded his
success and foredoomed all his efforts to failure.
[30] To appreciate just what can actually be done with local
spacetime curvature, see E.B. Smetanin, "Electromagnetic Field in a
Space With Curvature -- New Solutions," _Sov. Phys. J._, 25(2), Feb.
1982, p. 107-111.
[31] For a detailed exposition of the scientific suppression used to
uphold the present GR, written by an inside scientist of excellent
ability, and one with over 100 published papers in the literature, see
Rugero Maria Santilli, _Ethical Probe on Einstein's Followers in the
USA: An Insider's View_, Alpha Publishing, POB 82, Newtonville, MA
02160, 1984.
[32] For a discussion of the missing chaos in quantum mechanics, see
Robert Pool, "Quantum Chaos: Enigma Wrapped in a Mystery," _Science_,
243(4893), Feb. 17, 1989, p. 893-895. For a more technical discussion
see P.V. Elyutin, "The Quantum Chaos Problem," _Sov. Phys. Usp._
31(7), July 1988, p. 597-622.
[33] For an entry point into the literature of hidden variable
theory, see _Quantum Implications: Essays in Honour of David Bohm_,
B.J. Hiley and F. David Peat, Eds., Routledge & Kegan Paul, London &
New York, 1987.
[34] However, even if it predicts something new and is warranted, it
still may not be adopted. An example is the continuing reluctance of
physicists to reformulate EM theory, stressing the primacy of the
potential and the fact that not the force field but only the potential
for the force field exists in the vacuum. Even more so, it is
well-known that detection is actually binary, and we throw away
precisely half of almost every detection our instruments make. C.f.
Richard Kidd et al, "Evolution of the Modern Photon," _Am. J. Phys._,
57(1), Jan. 1989, p. 27-35. Generally in every electromagnetic
interaction of our instruments, two photons are produced: one a
time-forward photon, and the other a time-reversed photon. Our
detectors essentially measure the time-forward photon half, not the
time-reversed photon (antiphoton) half. The antiphoton half produces
a slight recoil force (Newton's third law reaction force) in the mass
(nuclei) of the instrument, which we ignore. Also, we continue to
ignore the evidence that the photon and antiphoton are not identical.
In a pumped phase conjugate mirror, for example, the emission of a
normal photon from the mirror material results in a recoil of the
mirror; the emission of an antiphoton by the mirror material, however,
does not result in recoil of the mirror. Physics is still not
consistent, as is well-known to foundations researchers, but this fact
is generally not accented to university students.
[35] Bearden, _Gravitobiology_, Tesla Book Co., 1991, p. 33-36. The
mechanism was previously advanced in several miscellaneous papers and
in private correspondence.
[36] See Bearden, _Gravitobiology_, Tesla Book Co., for additional
development of biological effects and mechanisms of scalar EM.