About an alternative to the Lorentz-transformations

The theory about the translational field

Replaces the Lorentz-transformations thereby avoiding elastic concepts of space and time, which is against intuition

Does not concern the theories about mass-energy-equivalence and mass-relativity

The redshift is not a doppler-effect

The theory can probably be verified

The theory about photon interference

Explains the redshift as well as the background radiation

Refutes the 'Big Bang' theory

Interpretation of the wave equation

apr -97 John-Erik Persson

The theory about the translational field

This theory is a model of the velocity of light

Maxwells calculations of the velocity of light

Maxwell calculates the absolute value c of the velocity vector __C__ starting with two differential equations of the first order.From these he derives a differential equation of the second order (the wave equation). Therefore we need two constants of integration (whith respect to time). This makes Maxwells coordinate system undefined whith respect to both position and velocity.

Maxwells results therefore must be completed with a constant of integration, __V__(__R__),which is constant in relation to time. __V__(__R__) represents the velocity of Maxwells coordinate system as a function of the position vector __R__. (See also "Interpretation of the wave equation"!).

The complete and correct result of Maxwells calculations therefore is a vector sum:

the velocity of light is __C__ + __V__(__R__)

where __R __and __V__ mean position and velocity of Maxwells coordinate system in relation to a coordinate system imagined to be defined in advance.

Physical interpretation

The absolute value of __C__ is a constant of nature c (= the wave velocity).

The two angles defining the direction of __C__ are initial values.

The constant of integration __V__(__R__) (= the reference velocity) must be defined in every point in space and be defined by other physical concepts than those definig __C__. The most plausible interpretation is than that __V__(__R__) is based on a description of reality.

The behavior of material particles is controlled by an everywhere defined acceleration __A__(__R__), that is based on a description of reality concerning the distribution of matter in the vicinity. Therefore we have reason to suspect some kind of relation between __V__(__R__) (which we call the translational field) and __A__(__R__) (the gravitational field) meaning that these two concepts have a common origin (in popular terms: "the gravitation is the so called ether"). Perhaps the photon is a fast wave field added to a slow reference field.

__V__(__R__) is probably also defined by the distribution of matter in the vicinity. Close to a big material body __V__(__R__) has the same value as the nearest part of the body (at least in tangential direction to the body). This is in agreement with the Michelson-Morley experiments and means that the foton adapts its velocity to local conditions.

The space dependency in the translational field, __V__(__R__), means that the theories of Newton and Maxwell can be united without the need for any nonlinear Lorentz-transformations. Because these transformations have a dubious physical interpretation this means that (according to the principle of Occams razor) the theory of the translational field is more plausible than the theory of relativity.

The theory of the ether

The theory of the ether interprets Maxwells results as: the velocity of light is __C__ + __V__. The missing space dependency makes the Lorentz-contraction neccesery.

The theory of relativity

Newtons theory about material bodies is split up dependent on the existens of gravity.If "the gravity is the ether" it is not apropriate for Einstein to treat fotons in the same way.

The Michelson-Morley experiments show that the 'ether' is space dependent (not that it is nonexistent). These experiments are not a safe ground for postulating relativity because the equipment is stationary in relation to the earth.

The physical interpretation of the Lorentz-transformations is dubious.

Verification

One method to test this theory against the theory of relativity is an interferometrical measurement of the velocity of light on a moving platform. A measurement of the second order of variation (like Michelsons) would probably not be acurate enough to detect even the velocity of a satelite in relation to the earth.If we could find a method to detect variation of the first order (one way velocity) the velocity of an airplane would probably be enough.

Perhaps it is possible to measure differentially between two optical fibres with different index of refraction. Unfortunately this means measurement in glass.

An indication about the possible result can be reached by considering the function of the laser gyro and the results from 1913 by the frenchman Sagnac. These results support the theory of the translational field. Unfortunately they are based on rotation, meaning that acceleration is involved. Since the indications are very strong (and linear instead of quadratic) it is not plausible that they originate from acceleration only.

Consequencies

According to this theory doppler effect can be generated if the source (or the observer) is moving in relation to their respective local translational field (not to each other). This means that double stars can have a red/blue shift but single stars movig away have no redshift due to doppler effect.

The observed redshift must therefore be interpreted in an other way, perhaps as a loss of energy. This can for instance depend on interference with an other foton. The lost energy can be supposed to constitute the cosmical background radiation. This explains why the radiation has the same intensity in all directions. Interference between fotons explains redshift as well as background radiation.

The theory about "Big Bang" is based primarily on these two phenomena and must therefor be abolished. This has importance for our view of the cosmos. It is therefor important that the here indicated tests are done.

The theory about photon interference

The light from the stars fills the whole universe with fotons having a dominant wavelength in the range of one miljonth of a meter. If two photons have positions and states of motion very close to each other interference can be plausible. Photons with a difference frequency can be generated. The generated fotons should have a longer wavalength, perhaps one thousandth of a meter.

The here described process explains the origin of the background radiation and why its intensity is a constant. The redshift is also explained by loss of energy. This redshift is not caused by doppler effect.

Conclusion

The theory of photon interference is in agreement with the theory of the translational field and explains redshift and background radiation. This means that we do not need the theory of "Big Bang" and that the redshift must be interpreted as a measure of distance (not velocity). Therefore the redshift puts a limit on the visibility of the universe (but not on its size and age).

Interpretation of the wave equation

The wave equation is a partial differential equation of the second order, which is derived from Maxwells equations. Maxwell has shown that the light in vacuum always travels with a constant velocity, c, in relation to Maxwells coordinate system. Since this result comes from a differential equation of the second order it must be completed with two constants of integration. These constants must be defined by other physical relations than the wave equation. These constants depend on the fact that the problem is defined by a differential equation (not if it is solved by integration or otherwise).

Because of these facts no values have been assign to the position and the velocity of Maxwells coordinate system. One way of trying to do such an assignment is the theory about the ether. If the ether has the constant velocity __V__ in relation to an observer the observed velocity of the light becomes a vector sum, __C__ + __V__ according to the ether theory.

Empirical results (by Michelson) shows that near the earth is __V__ equal to the velocity of the nearest part of the earth (at least in the horisontal plane). This has given rise to the theory of relativity, which says that the observer always will find __V__ to be zero independent of his own velocity. As a consequence space and time unfortunately becomes elastical concepts, which is in conflict with our intuition.

The wave equation is a *partial *differential equation with two independent variables (space and time). This means that __V__ can be a variable in relation to space, __V__(__R__), and at the same time be a constant of integration in relation to time. If we substitute the constant ether by a space dependent concept (the translational field) the velocity of light becomes __C__ + __V__(__R__). This dependency on space explains why a stationary interferometer near the earth always gives the value __V__(__R__) = 0 in relation to the earth. The theory of relativity and the theory about the translational field are both in agreement with Michelsons results.We get:

The theory of Theoretical Empirical

the ether __C__ + __V__ reasonable unreasonable

relativity __C__ unreasonable reasonable

the translational field __C__ + __V__(__R__) reasonable reasonable

The theory of the ether has failed to assign a value to the velocity of Maxwells coordinate system with a constant. The field theory does this instead with a space function.The theory of relativity refuses to accept the need for such an assignment.